Studies assessing sexual dysfunction in type 2 diabetic women are scanty. This study was designed to evaluate the prevalence and correlates of female sexual function in a quite large population of diabetic women. A total of 595 women with type 2 diabetes completed a questionnaire of self-report measures of sexual dysfunction and were analyzed in this study. Their age was 57.9±6.9 (mean and s.d.), duration of diabetes was 5.2±1.5 years and mean hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level was 8.3±1.3%. Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) was assessed by the Female Sexual Function Index instrument with a cut-off score of 23. The overall prevalence of FSD among the diabetic women was 53.4%, significantly higher in menopausal women (63.9%), as compared with nonmenopausal women (41.0%, P<0.001). There was no association between HbA1c, duration of diabetes, hypertension, or cigarette smoking status and FSD; on the contrary, age, metabolic syndrome and atherogenic dyslipidemia were significantly associated with FSD. Both depression and marital status were independent predictors of FSD, while physical activity was protective. Further studies are needed to elucidate in full the mechanisms underlying the evident differences between male and female sexual function. In the meantime, evaluation of female sexuality should become a routine evaluation in women with type 2 diabetes, such as other diabetic complications.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution
Open Access articles citing this article.
Scientific Reports Open Access 16 September 2020
BMC Women's Health Open Access 16 April 2020
Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology Open Access 17 February 2020
Subscribe to Journal
Get full journal access for 1 year
only $14.88 per issue
All prices are NET prices.
VAT will be added later in the checkout.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.
All prices are NET prices.
Laumann EO, Paik A, Rosen RC . Sexual dysfunction in the United States: prevalence and predictors. JAMA 1999; 281: 537–544.
Hisasue S, Kumamoto Y, Sato Y, Masumori N, Horita H, Kato R et al. Prevalence of female sexual dysfunction symptoms and its relationship to quality of life: a Japanese female cohort study. Urology 2005; 65: 143–148.
Song SH, Jeon H, Kim SW, Paick JS, Son H . The prevalence and risk factors of female sexual dysfunction in young korean women: an internet-based survey. J Sex Med 2008; 5: 1694–1701.
Laumann EO, Nicolosi A, Glasser DB, Paik A, Gingell C, Moreira E et al. GSSAB Investigators’ Group. Sexual problems among women and men aged 40-80 y: prevalence and correlates identified in the Global Study of Sexual Attitudes and Behaviors. Int J Impot Res 2005; 17: 39–57.
Fedele D, Bortolotti A, Coscelli C, Santeusanio F, Chatenoud L, Colli E, on behalf of Gruppo Italiano Studio Deficit Erettile nei Diabetici et al. Erectile dysfunction in type 1 and type 2 diabetics in Italy. Int J Epidemiol 2000; 29: 524–531.
Brown JS, Wessells H, Chancellor MB, Howards SS, Stamm WE, Stapleton AE et al. Urologic complications of diabetes. Diabetes Care 2005; 28: 177–185.
Enzlin P, Mathieu C, Van den Bruel A, Bosteels J, Vanderschueren D, Demyttenaere K . Sexual dysfunction in women with type 1 diabetes: a controlled study. Diabetes Care 2002; 25: 672–677.
Guay AT . Sexual dysfunction in the diabetic patient. Int J Impot Res 2001; 13 (Suppl 5): S47–S50.
Enzlin P, Mathieu C, Van Den Bruel A, Vanderschueren D, Demyttenaere K . Prevalence and predictors of sexual dysfunction in patients with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2003; 26: 409–414.
Jackson G . Sexual dysfunction and diabetes. Int J Clin Pract 2004; 58: 358–362.
Salonia A, Lanzi R, Scavini M, Pontillo M, Gatti E, Petrella G et al. Sexual function and endocrine profile in fertile women with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2006; 29: 312–316.
Enzlin P, Rosen R, Wiegel M, Brown J, Wessells H, Gatcomb P et al. Sexual dysfunction in women with type 1 diabetes. Long-term findings from the DCCT/ EDIC study cohort. Diabetes Care 2009; 32: 780–785.
Erol B, Tefekli A, Ozbey I, Salman F, Dincag N, Kadioglu A et al. Sexual dysfunction in type II diabetic women: a comparative study. J Sex Marital Ther 2002; 28 (Suppl 1): 55–62.
Olarinoye J, Olarinoye A . Determinants of sexual function among women with type 2 diabetes in a Nigerian population. J Sex Med 2008; 5: 878–886.
Abu Ali RM, Al Hajeri RM, Khader YS, Shegem NS, Ajlouni KM . Sexual dysfunction in Jordanian diabetic women. Diabetes Care 2008; 31: 1580–1581.
Fatemi SS, Tachavi SM . Evaluation of sexual function in women with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Vasc Dis Res 2009; 6: 38–39.
Esposito K, Giugliano D . Obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and sexual dysfunction. Int J Impot Res 2005; 17: 391–398.
Esposito K, Ciotola M, Maiorino MI, Giugliano F, Autorino R, De Sio M et al. Hyperlipidemia and sexual function in premenopausal women. J Sex Med 2009; 6: 1696–1703.
Enzlin P, Mathieu C, Vanderschueren D, Demyttenaere K . Diabetes mellitus and female sexuality: a review of 25 years’ research. Diabet Med 1998; 15: 809–815.
Esposito K, Giugliano D, Nappo F, Marfella R . Regression of carotid atherosclerosis by control of postprandial hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Circulation 2004; 110: 214–219.
Esposito K, Ciotola M, Carleo D, Schisano B, Sardelli L, Di Tommaso D et al. Post-meal glucose peaks at home associate with carotid intima-media thickness in type 2 diabetes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2008; 93: 1345–1350.
Rosen R, Brown C, Heiman J, Leiblum S, Meston C, Shabsigh R et al. The female sexual function index (FSFI): a multidimensional self-report instrument for the assessment of female sexual function. J Sex Marital Ther 2000; 26: 191–208.
Wiegel M, Meston C, Rosen R . The female sexual function index (FSFI): cross-validation and development of clinical cutoff scores. J Sex Marital Ther 2005; 31: 1–20.
Aslan E, Beji NK, Gungor I, Kadioglu A, Dikencik BK . Prevalence and risk factor for low sexual function in women: a study of 1009 women in an outpatient clinic of a university hospital in Istanbul. J Sex Med 2008; 5: 2044–2052.
Nappi R, Albani F, Vaccaro P, Gardella B, Salonia A, Chiovato L et al. Use of the Italian translation of the female sexual function index (FSFI) in routine gynecological practice. Gynecol Endocrinol 2008; 24: 214–219.
Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults. Executive Summary of the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). JAMA 2001; 285: 2486–2497.
Grundy SM . Atherogenic dyslipidemia associated with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance. Clin Cornerstone 2006; 8 (Suppl 1): S21–S27.
IPAQ Research Committee. Guidelines for Data Processing andAnalysis of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Available at http://www.ipaq.ki.se. Last accessed 20 October 2009.
Nathan DM, Buse JB, Davidson MB, Ferrannini E, Holman RR, Sherman R et al. Medical management of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes: a consensus algorithm for the initiation and adjustment of therapy: a consensus statement of the American Diabetes Association and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes. Diabetes Care 2009; 32: 193–203.
Veronelli A, Mauri C, Zecchini B, Peca MG, Turri O, Valitutti MT et al. Sexual dysfunction is frequent in premenopausal women with diabetes, obesity, and hypothyroidism, and correlates with markers of increate cardiovascular risk. A preliminary report. J Sex Med 2009; 6: 1561–1568.
Ogbera AO, Chinenye S, Akinlade A, Eregie A, Awobusuyi J . Frequency and correlates of sexual dysfunction in women with diabetes mellitus. J Sex Med 2009; 6: 3401–3406.
Gazzaruso C, Solerte SB, Pujia A, Coppola A, Vezzoli M, Salvucci F et al. Erectile dysfunction as a predictor of cardiovascular events and death in diabetic patients with angiographically proven asymptomatic coronary artery disease: a potential protective role for statins and 5-phosphodiesterase inhibitors. J Am Coll Cardiol 2008; 51: 2040–2044.
Ma RC, So WY, Yang X, Yu LW, Kong AP, Ko GT et al. Erectile dysfunction predicts coronary artery disease in type 2 diabetes. J Am Coll Cardiol 2008; 51: 2045–2050.
Erol B, Tefekli A, Sanli O, Ziylan O, Armagan A, Kendirci M et al. Does sexual dysfunction correlate with deterioration of somatic sensory system in diabetic women? Int J Impot Res 2003; 15: 198–202.
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
About this article
Cite this article
Esposito, K., Maiorino, M., Bellastella, G. et al. Determinants of female sexual dysfunction in type 2 diabetes. Int J Impot Res 22, 179–184 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1038/ijir.2010.6
- type 2 diabetes
- glycemic control
This article is cited by
Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology (2020)
BMC Women's Health (2020)
International Journal of Impotence Research (2020)
International Journal of Impotence Research (2020)
Scientific Reports (2020)