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Minerals, trace elements, Vit. D and bone health

Intake and dietary sources of haem and non-haem iron among European adolescents and their association with iron status and different lifestyle and socio-economic factors

A Corrigendum to this article was published on 06 November 2013



Adolescents are at risk of iron deficiency because of their high iron requirements. The aims of this study were: (1) to assess iron intake, its determinants and its most important food sources and; (2) to evaluate the relation of iron intake and status in European adolescents.


Two non-consecutive 24-h recalls were completed by a computerised tool. The socio-demographic and socio-economic data were collected by a self-reported questionnaire. Weight and height were measured. A distinction was made between haem and non-haem iron.


The total iron intake was significantly higher among boys (13.8 mg/day; n=1077) than girls (11.0 mg/day; n=1253). About 97.3% of the boys and 87.8% of the girls met the estimated average requirement, and 72.4% of the boys and 13.7% of the girls met the recommendation for bio-available iron intake. The ratio of haem/non-haem iron intake was lower for girls than boys. Meat (19.2; 76%) and bread and rolls (12.6;3.9%) contributed most to total and haem iron intake. Bread and rolls (13.8%) and meat (10.8%) contributed most to non-haem iron intake. Age, sex and body mass index were associated with iron intake. Only red blood cell concentration was significantly negatively associated with total, haem and non-haem iron intake.


Girls had lower iron intakes and ratio of haem/non-haem iron intake than boys. The main total iron and haem iron source was meat, while the main non-haem iron source was bread and rolls. Adolescent girls may be a group at risk for iron deficiency. Consequently, special attention and strategies are needed in order to improve iron intakes during adolescence.

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Vandevijvere, S., Michels, N., Verstraete, S. et al. Intake and dietary sources of haem and non-haem iron among European adolescents and their association with iron status and different lifestyle and socio-economic factors. Eur J Clin Nutr 67, 765–772 (2013).

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  • iron intake
  • iron status
  • adolescents
  • dietary sources

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