Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting nature.com. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

Dairy consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis of cohort studies

Abstract

Background/Objectives:

Milk intake is widely recommended for a healthy diet. Epidemiological studies have suggested that the consumption of dairy products may be associated with a reduction in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A meta-analysis was conducted to elucidate the association between dairy products consumption and T2DM.

Subjects/Methods:

A systematical literature search was done through the Medline database and seven related cohort studies were identified. The adjusted relative risks (RRs) with the highest and the lowest categories from each study were extracted to calculate the combined RR. A least-square trend estimation was applied to assess the dose-response relationships.

Results:

A combined RR of 0.86 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.79–0.92) was revealed on T2DM risk associated to dairy intake, with little evidence of heterogeneity. For subgroup analysis, a combined RR was 0.82 (95% CI, 0.74–0.90), 1.00 (95% CI, 0.89–1.10), 0.95 (95% CI, 0.86–1.05) and 0.83 (95% CI, 0.74–0.93) for the intake of low-fat dairy, high-fat dairy, whole milk and yogurt, respectively. Dose-response analysis showed that T2DM risk could be reduced 5% for total dairy products and 10% for low-fat dairy products.

Conclusion:

An inverse association of daily intake of dairy products, especially low-fat dairy, with T2DM was revealed, indicating a beneficial effect of dairy consumption in the prevention of T2DM development.

Your institute does not have access to this article

Relevant articles

Open Access articles citing this article.

Access options

Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

$32.00

All prices are NET prices.

Figure 1

References

  • Alberti KG, Zimmet P, Shaw J (2007). International diabetes federation: a consensus on type 2 diabetes prevention. Diabet Med 24, 451–463.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Begg CB, Mazumdar M (1994). Operating characteristics of a rank correlation test for publication bias. Biometrics 50, 1088–1101.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Belobrajdic DP, McIntosh GH, Owens JA (2004). A high-whey-protein diet reduces body weight gain and alters insulin sensitivity relative to red meat in wistar rats. J Nutr 134, 1454–1458.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Choi HK, Willett WC, Stampfer MJ, Rimm E, Hu FB (2005). Dairy consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in men: a prospective study. Arch Intern Med 165, 997–1003.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Egger M, Davey Smith G, Schneider M, Minder C (1997). Bias in meta-analysis detected by a simple, graphical test. BMJ 315, 629–634.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Elwood PC, Pickering JE, Fehily AM (2007). Milk and dairy consumption, diabetes and the metabolic syndrome: the Caerphilly prospective study. J Epidemiol Community Health 61, 695–698.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Elwood PC, Pickering JE, Givens DI, Gallacher JE (2010). The consumption of milk and dairy foods and the incidence of vascular disease and diabetes: an overview of the evidence. Lipids 45, 925–939.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Eriksson KF, Lindgarde F (1991). Prevention of type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus by diet and physical exercise. The 6-year Malmo feasibility study. Diabetologia 34, 891–898.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Greenland S, Longnecker MP (1992). Methods for trend estimation from summarized dose-response data, with applications to meta-analysis. Am J Epidemiol 135, 1301–1309.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Higgins JP, Thompson SG (2002). Quantifying heterogeneity in a meta-analysis. Stat Med 21, 1539–1558.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kirii K, Mizoue T, Iso H, Takahashi Y, Kato M, Inoue M et al. (2009). Calcium, vitamin D and dairy intake in relation to type 2 diabetes risk in a Japanese cohort. Diabetologia 52, 2542–2550.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lindstrom J, Louheranta A, Mannelin M, Rastas M, Salminen V, Eriksson J et al. (2003). The Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study (DPS): lifestyle intervention and 3-year results on diet and physical activity. Diabetes Care 26, 3230–3236.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Liu S, Choi HK, Ford E, Song Y, Klevak A, Buring JE et al. (2006). A prospective study of dairy intake and the risk of type 2 diabetes in women. Diabetes Care 29, 1579–1584.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Luhovyy BL, Akhavan T, Anderson GH (2007). Whey proteins in the regulation of food intake and satiety. J Am Coll Nutr 26, 704S–712S.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mozaffarian D, Cao H, King IB, Lemaitre RN, Song X, Siscovick DS et al. (2010). Trans-palmitoleic acid, metabolic risk factors, and new-onset diabetes in US adults: a cohort study. Ann Intern Med 153, 790–799.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pittas AG, Dawson-Hughes B, Li T, Van Dam RM, Willett WC, Manson JE et al. (2006). Vitamin D and calcium intake in relation to type 2 diabetes in women. Diabetes Care 29, 650–656.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pittas AG, Lau J, Hu FB, Dawson-Hughes B (2007). The role of vitamin D and calcium in type 2 diabetes. A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 92, 2017–2029.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Teegarden D, White KM, Lyle RM, Zemel MB, Van Loan MD, Matkovic V et al. (2008). Calcium and dairy product modulation of lipid utilization and energy expenditure. Obesity (Silver Spring) 16, 1566–1572.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Thanopoulou AC, Karamanos BG, Angelico FV, Assaad-Khalil SH, Barbato AF, Del Ben MP et al. (2003). Dietary fat intake as risk factor for the development of diabetes: multinational, multicenter study of the Mediterranean Group for the Study of Diabetes (MGSD). Diabetes Care 26, 302–307.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • van Dam RM, Hu FB, Rosenberg L, Krishnan S, Palmer JR (2006). Dietary calcium and magnesium, major food sources, and risk of type 2 diabetes in US black women. Diabetes Care 29, 2238–2243.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • van Dam RM, Willett WC, Rimm EB, Stampfer MJ, Hu FB (2002). Dietary fat and meat intake in relation to risk of type 2 diabetes in men. Diabetes Care 25, 417–424.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Villegas R, Gao YT, Dai Q, Yang G, Cai H, Li H et al. (2009). Dietary calcium and magnesium intakes and the risk of type 2 diabetes: the Shanghai Women's Health Study. Am J Clin Nutr 89, 1059–1067.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wild S, Roglic G, Green A, Sicree R, King H (2004). Global prevalence of diabetes: estimates for the year 2000 and projections for 2030. Diabetes Care 27, 1047–1053.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zemel MB (2004). Role of calcium and dairy products in energy partitioning and weight management. Am J Clin Nutr 79, 907S–912S.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zemel MB, Shi H, Greer B, Dirienzo D, Zemel PC (2000). Regulation of adiposity by dietary calcium. FASEB J 14, 1132–1138.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zemel MB, Sun X (2008). Dietary calcium and dairy products modulate oxidative and inflammatory stress in mice and humans. J Nutr 138, 1047–1052.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

This research was supported in part by a grant from National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 30771808) to Dr Li-Qiang Qin.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to L-Q Qin.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Contributors: L-QQ designed this article and supported the research. XT collected the data and performed the statistical analysis. J-YD assisted the statistical analysis. Z-WW and WL assisted the collection of data. All authors read and approved this article.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Tong, X., Dong, JY., Wu, ZW. et al. Dairy consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis of cohort studies. Eur J Clin Nutr 65, 1027–1031 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1038/ejcn.2011.62

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/ejcn.2011.62

Keywords

  • dairy products
  • type 2 diabetes mellitus
  • meta-analysis

Further reading

Search

Quick links