Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

Increased plasma PYY levels following supplementation with the functional fiber PolyGlycopleX in healthy adults



A variety of dietary fibers have been shown to alter satiety hormone gene expression and secretion. The objective of this study was to examine plasma satiety hormone concentrations in healthy subjects consuming either PolyGlycopleX (PGX) or control (skim milk powder) for 21 days.


A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study was conducted in 54 healthy male and female adults. Participants consumed 5 g per day of PGX or control for 1 week followed by 2 additional weeks of 10 g per day of assigned product (n=27 per group). Primary outcomes measured at three visits (V1, V2 and V3) were plasma active glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) total ghrelin, peptide YY (PYY) and insulin.


There was a significant effect of visit for fasting PYY with control participants experiencing decreased PYY levels over time while PGX prevented this decline. When stratified by body mass index (BMI), PGX increased fasting PYY levels from week 1 to week 3 compared with control in participants with BMI <23 kg/m2. There was a significant effect of visit for fasting ghrelin with levels decreasing in both PGX and control groups over time. No differences were detected in fasting GLP-1 levels. Although there was a 14% reduction in fasting insulin between V1 and V3 with PGX this was not significantly different from control.


PGX is a highly viscous, functional fiber that modifies satiety hormone secretion in healthy adults. Its’ potential to act similarly in overweight adults warrants investigation.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution

Relevant articles

Open Access articles citing this article.

Access options

Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.


All prices are NET prices.

Figure 1
Figure 2
Figure 3


  • Adam TC, Westererp-Plantenga RS (2005). Glucagon-like peptide-1 release and satiety after a nutrient challenge in normal-weight and obese subjects. Br J Nutr 93, 845–851.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Batterham RL, Cowley MA, Small CJ, Heshka S, Cohen MA, Dakin CL et al. (2002). Gut hormone PYY (3–36) physiologically inhibits food intake. Nature 418, 650–654.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Cani PD, Dewever C, Delzenne NM (2004). Inulin-type fructans modulate gastrointestinal peptides involved in appetite regulation (glucagon-like peptide-1 and ghrelin) in rats. Br J Nutr 92, 521–526.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Cani PD, Lecourt E, Dewulf EM, Sohet FM, Pachikian BD, Naslain D et al. (2009). Gut microbiota fermentation of prebiotics increases satietogenic and incretin gut peptide production with consequences for appetite sensation and glucose response after a meal. Am J Clin Nutr 90, 1236–1243.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Carabin IG, Lyon MR, Wood S, Pelletier X, Donazzolo Y, Burdock GA (2009). Supplementation of the diet with the functional fiber PolyGlycopleX is well tolerated by healthy subjects in a clinical trial. Nutr J 8, 1–11.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Castaneda TR, Tong J, Datta R, Culler M, Tschop MH (2010). Ghrelin in the regulation of body weight and metabolism. Frontiers Neuroendocrinol 31, 44–60.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Chen HL, Cheng HC, Wu WT, Liu YJ, Liu SY (2008). Supplementation of konjac glucomannan into a low-fiber Chinese diet promoted bowel movement and improved colonic ecology in constipated adults: a placebo-controlled, diet-controlled trial. J Am Coll Nutr 27, 102–108.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dumoulin V, Moro F, Barcelo A, Dakka T, Cuber J-C (1998). Peptide YY, glucagon-like peptide-1, and neurotensin responses to luminal factors in the isolated vascularly perfused frat ileum. Endocrinology 139, 3780–3786.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Juntunen KS, Laaksonen DE, Autio K, Niskanen LK, Holst JJ, Savolainen KE et al. (2003). Structural differences between rye and wheat breads but not total fiber content may explain the lower postprandial insulin response to rye bread. Am J Clin Nutr 78, 957–964.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Marone PA, Lyon MR, Gahler R, Donath C, Hofman-Huther H, Wood S (2009). Genotoxicity studies of PolyGlycoplex (PGX): a novel dietary fiber. Int J Toxicol 28, 318–331.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Matulka RA, Lyon MR, Wood S, Marone PA, Merkel DJ, Burdock GA (2009). The safety of PolyGlycopleX (PGX) as shown in a 90-day rodent feeding study. Nutr J 8, 1–11.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Overduin J, Frayo RS, Grill HJ, Kaplan JM, Cummings DE (2005). Role of the duodenum and macronutrient type in ghrelin regulation. Endocrinology 146, 845–850.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Parnell JA, Reimer RA (2009). Weight loss during oligofructose supplementation is associated with decreased ghrelin and increased peptide YY in overweight and obese adults. Am J Clin Nutr 89, 1751–1759.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Reimer RA, McBurney MI (1996). Dietary fiber modulates intestinal proglucagon messenger ribonucleic acid and postprandial secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 and insulin in rats. Endocrinology 137, 3948–3956.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Reimer RA, Russell JC (2008). Glucose tolerance, lipids and GLP-1 secretion in JCR:LA-cp rats fed a high protein fiber diet. Obesity 16, 40–46.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Reimer RA, Thomson ABR, Rajotte R, Basu TK, Ooraikul B, McBurney MI (1997). A physiological level of rhubarb fiber increases proglucagon gene expression and modulates intestinal glucose uptake in rats. J Nutr 127, 1923–1928.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • St-Pierre DH, Rabasa-Lhoret R, Lavoie M-E, Karelis AD, Strychar I, Doucet E et al. (2009). Fiber intake predicts ghrelin levels in overweight and obese postmenopausal women. Eur J Endocrinol 161, 65–72.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Tschop M, Smiley DL, Heiman ML (2000). Ghrelin induces adiposity in rodents. Nature 407, 908–913.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Vuksan V, Panda D, Lyon MR, Rogovik AL, Jenkins AL, Leiter LA (2009). Viscosity of fiber preloads affects food intake in adolescents. Nutr Metabol Cardiovasc Dis 19, 498–503.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Weickert MO, Mohlig M, Schofl C, Arafat AM, Otto B, Viehoff H et al. (2006a). Cereal fiber improves whole-body insulin sensitivity in overweight and obese women. Diabetes Care 29, 775–780.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Weickert MO, Spranger J, Holst JJ, Otto B, Koebnick C, Mohlig M et al. (2006b). Wheat-fibre-induced changes of postprandial peptide YY and ghrelin responses are not associated with acute alterations of satiety. Br J Nutr 96, 795–798.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Wren AM, Bloom SR (2007). Gut hormones and appetite control. Gastroenterology 132, 2116–2130.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Wren AM, Seal LJ, Cohen MA, Brynes AE, Frost GS, Murphy KG et al. (2001). Ghrelin enhances appetite and increases food intake in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 86, 5992–5995.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Zhou J, Martin RJ, Tulley RT, Raggio AM, McCutcheon KL, Shen L et al. (2008). Dietary resistant starch upregulates total GLP-1 and PYY in a sustained day-long manner through fermentation in rodents. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 295, E1160–E1166.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to R A Reimer.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

The authors have a financial relationship with the sponsor of the study, InovoBiologic, Inc.

Additional information

Contributors: RAR analyzed the data and received financial support from InovoBiologic Inc. for the preparation of this paper. ML participated in developing the protocol. RG participated in the design of the study and owns the Factors Group of Companies, which retains an interest in PGX. IGC participated in the design of the clinical trial protocol. XP developed the clinical trial protocol and conducted the original clinical trial. JAP performed the laboratory analysis and reviewed the data. SW initiated the study and participated in the development of the protocol. All authors critically reviewed the paper.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Reimer, R., Pelletier, X., Carabin, I. et al. Increased plasma PYY levels following supplementation with the functional fiber PolyGlycopleX in healthy adults. Eur J Clin Nutr 64, 1186–1191 (2010).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:


  • functional fiber
  • viscosity
  • satiety hormones
  • peptide YY
  • GLP-1

This article is cited by


Quick links