Stability of BRAF V600E mutation in metastatic melanoma: new insights for therapeutic success?


We read with great interest the paper by Lin et al (2011) reporting a marked intratumor heterogeneity for activating BRAF mutations in primary melanomas and their positive selection along with disease recurrence or metastatic evolution. On the basis of these observations, the authors agreeably conclude that, rather than being a founder event, BRAF mutations more likely represent one of the many genetic alterations that are selected during disease progression.

The fine characterization of the ‘evolutionary biology’ of activating BRAF mutation in melanoma progression is clearly relevant as it correlates with a more aggressive course of disease (Long et al, 2011); nevertheless, it also bears important practical implications, as BRAF mutation in metastatic cutaneous melanoma is the molecular hallmark to select patients for treatment with the highly effective BRAF kinase inhibitors under active clinical development (Flaherty et al, 2010).

Prompted by the findings of Lin et al (2011), we asked the question whether, once melanoma has reached the metastatic stage, the BRAF mutational status undergoes additional evolution with disease progression over time and metastatic sites. To address this issue, we investigated the activating BRAFV600E mutation in primary cell cultures generated from initial metastatic lesions surgically removed from 15 cutaneous melanoma patients, and in 19 subsequent metastases (Table 1). It is noteworthy that metachronous melanoma metastases, even when removed from different body parts of individual patients at a median time interval of 305 days (range 26–1318), ‘stabilized’ for the BRAFV600E mutated status. The original heterozygous BRAFV600E status was consistently retained in 10 out of 15 patients investigated, whereas 2 out of 15 acquired a homozygous mutated status as compared with an initial heterozygous condition (Table 1). Additionally, no BRAFV600E mutation was acquired in three patients with an initial homozygous wild-type BRAF genotype (Table 1). These findings suggest that, once melanoma reaches the metastatic stage, its BRAFV600E mutational status remains substantially unchanged in subsequent melanoma metastases, regardless of the time intervals to develop new metastatic lesions and site(s) of further metastatization. The lack of further modifications in the BRAF mutational condition, once melanoma has metastasized, can possibly result from absent/limited intratumor heterogeneity for the mutation in the metastatic disease. Supporting this idea, single-cell clones generated from the short-term metastatic melanoma cultures Mel 195 and Mel 313 retained the heterozygous BRAFV600E mutated and homozygous wild-type genotypes of the parental metastatic cells, respectively (Figure 1).

Table 1 BRAFV600E mutation genotyping of metachronous metastatic melanoma lesions
Figure 1

Pyrosequencing analysis of BRAFV600E mutation in single-cell clones generated from Mel 195 and Mel 313 melanoma cells. Primary cultures of melanoma cells have been generated from metastatic melanoma lesions surgically removed from Mel 195 and Mel 313 patients. Single-cell clones were obtained by diluting Mel 195 and Mel 313 melanoma cell populations to three cells per ml and plating 100 μl of these cell suspensions in each well of 96-well plates. Percentage of BRAFV600E-mutant alleles was determined in Mel 195 and Mel 313 parental melanoma cell populations, and in their derived single-cell clones, by pyrosequencing assay as described by Venesio et al (2008), with minor modifications.

On the basis of Lin et al (2011) and our data, it is likely that activating BRAF mutations are positively selected during melanoma progression until reaching the metastatic stage when the BRAF mutational status stabilizes. This finding, together with the likely limited intratumor heterogeneity of BRAF mutations, suggests that the metastatic stage of BRAF-mutated melanomas represents the most appropriate therapeutic setting for BRAF inhibitors. The highly stable BRAF status identified among metachronous melanoma metastases also bears important practical implications. In fact, any metastatic accessible tissue, either fresh or archival, regardless of the timing of metastasis and site of melanoma progression, being representative of the final BRAF mutational status of disease in a given individual, could be safely utilized to identify patients who are candidate to BRAF inhibitors. Molecular mechanism(s) of melanoma resistance to BRAF inhibitors are being initially elucidated and seem to be independent from the outgrowth of BRAF wild-type melanoma lesions (Solit and Rosen, 2011). Being the BRAF mutational status stable over time in metastatic melanoma, it is reasonable to speculate that overcoming the BRAF inhibitors-induced intrinsic resistance of melanoma cells, could allow to continue or re-challenge patients with these highly promising therapeutic agents.

Change history

  • 29 March 2012

    This paper was modified 12 months after initial publication to switch to Creative Commons licence terms, as noted at publication


  1. Flaherty KT, Puzanov I, Kim KB, Ribas A, McArthur GA, Sosman JA, O’Dwyer PJ, Lee RJ, Grippo JF, Nolop K, Chapman PB (2010) Inhibition of mutated, activated BRAF in metastatic melanoma. N Engl J Med 363 (9): 809–819

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Lin J, Goto Y, Murata H, Sakaizawa K, Uchiyama A, Saida T, Takata M (2011) Polyclonality of BRAF mutations in primary melanoma and the selection of mutant alleles during progression. Br J Cancer 104 (3): 464–468

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Long GV, Menzies AM, Nagrial AM, Haydu LE, Hamilton AL, Mann GJ, Hughes TM, Thompson JF, Scolyer RA, Kefford RF (2011) Prognostic and clinicopathologic associations of oncogenic BRAF in metastatic melanoma. J Clin Oncol 29 (10): 1239–1246

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Solit DB, Rosen N (2011) Resistance to BRAF inhibition in melanomas. N Engl J Med 364 (8): 772–774

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Venesio T, Chiorino G, Balsamo A, Zaccagna A, Petti C, Scatolini M, Pisacane A, Sarotto I, Picciotto F, Risio M (2008) In melanocytic lesions the fraction of BRAF V600E alleles is associated with sun exposure but unrelated to ERK phosphorylation. Mod Pathol 21 (6): 716–726

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


This work was supported in part by grants from the Associazione Italiana per la Ricerca sul Cancro (IG 6038 to MM and MFAG 9195 to LS), Fondazione Monte dei Paschi di Siena, and the Harry J Lloyd Charitable Trust.

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to M Maio.

Rights and permissions

From twelve months after its original publication, this work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported License. To view a copy of this license, visit

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Sigalotti, L., Fratta, E., Parisi, G. et al. Stability of BRAF V600E mutation in metastatic melanoma: new insights for therapeutic success?. Br J Cancer 105, 327–328 (2011).

Download citation

Further reading