Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting nature.com. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

The angiotensin converting enzyme I/D polymorphism in Russian athletes

Abstract

The deletion (D) allele of the human ACE gene is associated with higher ACE activity than the insertion (I) allele. There is controversy as to whether the ACE genotype may be associated with elite athletic status; recent studies have identified no significant associations amongst those drawn from mixed sporting disciplines. However, such lack of association may reflect the mixed nature of such cohorts, given that an excess frequency of the I allele has been reported amongst elite endurance athletes, and an excess of the D allele amongst those engaged in more power-orientated sports. We examined this hypothesis by determining ACE I/D allele frequency amongst 217 Russian athletes (swimmers, skiers, triathletes and track-and-field participants) prospectively stratified by performance (‘outstanding’ or ‘average’), and the duration of their event (SDA (<1 min), MDA (1 to 20 min), and LDA (>20 min): short, middle and long distance athletes respectively). ACE genotype and allele frequencies were compared to 449 controls. ACE genotype frequency amongst the whole cohort, or the outstanding athletes alone, was no different to that amongst sedentary controls. However, there was an excess of the D allele (frequency 0.72, P=0.001) amongst the outstanding SDA group, and an excess of the I allele (frequency 0.63, P=0.032) amongst the outstanding MDA group. These findings were replicated in the outstanding swimmers, with track and field SDA similarly demonstrating an excess of the D allele (P=0.01). There was no association found between the outstanding LDA and ACE genotype (P=0.27). These data not only confirm an excess of the D allele in elite SDA, and I allele in elite MDA, but also offer an explanation as to why any such association may be hard to detect amongst a heterogeneous cohort of mixed athletic ability and discipline.

References

  1. 1

    Rigat B, Hubert C, Alhenc-Gelas F, Cambien F, Corvol P, Soubrier F . An insertion/deletion polymorphism in the angiotensin-1-converting enzyme gene accounting for half the variance of serum enzyme levels J Clin Invest 1990 86: 1343–1346

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2

    Danser AHJ, Schalekamp MADH, Bax WA et al. Angiotensin converting enzyme in the human heart: effect of the deletion/insertion polymorphism Circulation 1995 92: 1387–1388

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3

    Myerson S, Hemingway H, Budget R, Martin J, Humphries S, Montgomery H . Human angiotensin I-converting enzyme gene and endurance performance J Appl Physiol 1999 87: 1313–1316

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4

    Montgomery HE, Marshall RM, Hemingway H et al. Human gene for physical performance Nature 1998 393: 221–222

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5

    Gayagay G, Yu B, Hambly B et al. Elite endurance athletes and the ACE I allele–the role of genes in athletic performance Hum Genet 1998 103: 48–50

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6

    Jelakovic B, Kuzmanic D, Milicic D et al. Influence of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene polymorphism and circadian blood pressure (BP) changes on left ventricle (LV) mass in competitive oarsmen Am J Hypertens 2000 13: 182A

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7

    Alvarez R, Terrados N, Ortolano R et al. Genetic variation in the renin-angiotensin system and athletic performance Eur J Appl Physiol 2000 82: 117–120

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8

    Woods D, Hickman M, Jamshidi Y et al. Elite swimmers and the D allele of the ACE I/D polymorphism Hum Genet 2001 108: 230–232

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9

    Taylor RR, Mamotte CDS, Fallon K, Bockxmeer FM . Elite athletes and the gene for angiotensin-converting enzyme J Appl Physiol 1999 87: 1035–1037

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10

    Karjalainen J, Kujala UM, Stolt A et al. Angiotensinogen Gene M235T polymorphism predicts left ventricular hypertrophy in endurance athletes J Am Coll Cardiol 1999 34: 494–499

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11

    Rankinen T, Wolfarth B, Simoneau J et al. No association between the angiotensin-converting enzyme ID polymorphism and elite endurance athlete status J Appl Physiol 2000 88: 1571–1575

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12

    Bolla MK, Haddad L, Humphries SE, Winder AF, Day INM . A method for determination of hundreds of APOE genotypes utilising highly simplified, optimised protocols and restriction digestion analysis by microtitre array diagonal gel electrophoresis (MADGE) Clin Chem 1995 41: 1599–1604

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  13. 13

    O'Dell SD, Humphries SE, Day INM . Rapid methods for population-scale analysis for gene polymorphisms: the ACE gene as an example Br Heart J 1995 73: 368–371

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14

    Montgomery HE, Clarkson P, Dollery CM et al. Association of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Gene I/D polymorphism with change in left ventricular mass in response to physical training Circulation 1997 96: 741–747

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15

    Rankinen T, Perusse L, Gagnon J et al. Angiotensin-converting enzyme ID polymorphism and fitness phenotype in the HERITAGE Family Study J Appl Physiol 2000 88: 1029–1035

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16

    Folland J, Leach B, Little T et al. Angiotensin-converting enzyme genotype affects the response of human skeletal muscle to functional overload Exp Physiol 2000 85: 575–579

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17

    Brown NJ, Blais C, Gandhi SK, Adam A . ACE Insertion/Deletion Genotype Affects Bradykinin Metabolism J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 1998 32: 373–377

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18

    Liu Y, Leri A, Li B et al. Angiotensin II stimulation in vitro induces hypertrophy of normal and postinfarcted ventricular myocytes Circ Res 1998 82: 1145–1159

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19

    Murphey LJ, Gainer JV, Vaughan DE, Brown NJ . Angiotensin-converting enzyme insertion/deletion polymorphism modulates the human in vivo metabolism of bradykinin Circulation 2000 102: 829–832

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20

    Linz W, Scholkens BA . A specific B2-bradykinin receptor antagonist HOE 140 abolishes the antihypertrophic effect of ramipril Br J Pharmacol 1992 105: 771–772

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21

    Woods DR, Humphries SE, Montgomery HE . The ACE I/D Polymorphism and Human Physical Performance Trends Endocrinol Metab 2000 11: 416–420

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22

    Williams AG, Rayson MP, Jubb M et al. The ACE gene and muscle performance Nature 2000 403: 614

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23

    Montgomery H, Clarkson P, Barnard M et al. Angiotensin-converting-enzyme gene insertion/deletion polymorphism and response to physical training Lancet 1999 353: 541–545

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24

    Tomilin NV, Iguchi-Ariga SM, Ariga H . Transcription and replication silencer element is present within conserved region of human Alu repeats interacting with nuclear protein FEBS Lett 1990 263: 69–72

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25

    Tomilin NV . Control of genes by mammalian retroposons Int Rev Cytol 1999 186: 1–48

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  26. 26

    Rieder MJ, Taylor SL, Clark AG, Nickerson DA . Sequence variation in the human angiotensin converting enzyme Nat Genet 1999 22: 59–62

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  27. 27

    McKenzie CA, Julier C, Forrester T et al. Segregation and linkage analysis of serum angiotensin I-converting enzyme levels: evidence for two quantitative trait loci Am J Hum Genet 1995 57: 1426–1435

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  28. 28

    Jeunemaitre X, Lifton RP, Hunt SC, Williams RR, Lalouel JM . Absence of linkage between the angiotensin converting enzyme locus and essential hypertension Nat Genet 1992 1: 72–75

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  29. 29

    Messerli FH, Nowaczynski W, Honda M et al. Effects of angiotensin II on steroid metabolism and hepatic blood flow in man Circ Res 1977 40: 204–207

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  30. 30

    Coiro V, Volpi R, Capretti L et al. Stimulation of ACTH and GH release by angiotensin II in normal men is mediated by the AT1 receptor subtype Regul Pept 1998 74: 27–30

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

We thank Valentina Saburova for technical assistance. This work was supported by grants from the Russian Fund for Basic Research 00-04-04003, 01-04-49486.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Igor B Nazarov.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Nazarov, I., Woods, D., Montgomery, H. et al. The angiotensin converting enzyme I/D polymorphism in Russian athletes. Eur J Hum Genet 9, 797–801 (2001). https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ejhg.5200711

Download citation

Keywords

  • angiotensin converting enzyme
  • ACE
  • athletes
  • sport

Further reading

Search

Quick links