To investigate glycaemic and satiating properties of potato products in healthy subjects using energy-equivalent or carbohydrate-equivalent test meals, respectively.
Subjects and setting:
Thirteen healthy subjects volunteered for the first study, and 14 for the second. The tests were performed at Applied Nutrition and Food Chemistry, Lund University, Sweden.
Experimental design and test meals:
All meals were served as breakfast in random order after an overnight fast. Study 1 included four energy-equivalent (1000 kJ) meals of boiled potatoes, french fries, or mashed potatoes; the latter varying in portion size by use of different amounts of water. The available carbohydrate content varied between 32.5 and 50.3 g/portion. Capillary blood samples were collected during 240 min for analysis of glucose, and satiety was measured with a subjective rating scale. Study 2 included four carbohydrate-equivalent meals (50 g available carbohydrates) of french fries, boiled potatoes served with and without addition of oil, and white wheat bread (reference). The energy content varied between 963 and 1534kJ/portion. Capillary blood samples were collected during 180 min for analysis of glucose, and satiety was measured using a subjective rating scale.
Study 1: boiled potatoes induced higher subjective satiety than french fries when compared on an energy-equivalent basis. The french fries elicited the lowest early glycaemic response and was less satiating in the early postprandial phase (area under the curve (AUC) 0–45 min). No differences were found in glycaemic or satiety response between boiled or mashed potatoes. Study 2: french fries resulted in a significantly lower glycaemic response (glycaemic index (GI)=77) than boiled potatoes either with or without addition of oil (GI=131 and 111, respectively). No differences were found in subjective satiety response between the products served on carbohydrate equivalence.
Boiled potatoes were more satiating than french fries on an energy-equivalent basis, the effect being most prominent in the early postprandial phase, whereas no difference in satiety could be seen on a carbohydrate-equivalent basis. The lowered GI for french fries, showing a typical prolonged low-GI profile, could not be explained by the fat content per se.
The Swedish Agency for Innovation Systems (Project No P11900-3 A) and Öresund Starch Profiles (ÖSP).
The role of glycaemic index (GI) on satiety sensation and weight maintenance has been the subject of a number of studies as reviewed by for example, Ludwig (2000), Pawlak et al. (2002) and Raben (2002). However, the conclusions regarding a potential relationship differ. In a study with isovolumetric beverages, Anderson et al. (2002) found that a high glycaemic response was associated with increased satiety in the early postprandial period (1 h). In elderly subjects, mashed potatoes (high-GI food) induced significantly higher glycaemia and satiety compared with a barley meal (low-GI food) containing the same amount of available carbohydrates as measured during 120 min (Kaplan and Greenwood, 2002). In contrast, a lower satiety was observed in obese children after consumption of a rapidly digested carbohydrate meal (including potatoes) compared with a lente meal (including spaghetti; Alvina and Araya, 2004). In the latter study, no difference was found in normal weight children. More recent data suggest that consumption of low-GI foods at breakfast may result in a lowered voluntary food intake at the subsequent lunch as studied in non-overweight and obese children (Warren et al., 2003). Low-GI diets have also been examined in the treatment of paediatric obesity; and as opposed to an energy-restricted reduced fat diet, consumption of a low-GI/regular fat diet during 4 months resulted in a lowered body mass index (BMI) and body weight in obese children (Spieth et al., 2000). Some studies have been investigating the satiating effect of different foods on an energy-equivalent basis. Holt et al. (2001) found that energy-equivalent portions of bread differed both in satiating and glycaemic response, although no correlation between satiety and glycaemia was seen. When comparing energy-equivalent (1000 kJ) portions of carbohydrate foods, high-GI potatoes (Foster-Powell et al., 2002) promoted a considerably higher satiety than many other foods, irrespective of their GI character (Holt et al., 1995). In the Holt study, there was a large range in portion size and thus, for example meal volume varied. There are studies in the literature indicating a positive influence of volume on satiety (Rolls et al., 1999, 2000). In the study by Holt et al. (1995), large differences in subjective rating of satiety were found between different potato products. In the literature there are also large differences in glycaemia after different potato products, depending on, for example, processing conditions; canned potatoes and instant mashed potatoes ranging in GI between 87 and 139 (Foster-Powell et al., 2002). In one study, potatoes, regardless of variety, cooking method or maturity had exceptionally high-GI values, or from 93 to 144 (Soh and Brand-Miller, 1999). Recently, GI values were published for potato products available in Great Britain (Henry et al., 2005) and North America, respectively (Fernandes et al., 2005); different potato products displaying GIs between 78 and 132. Still, the GI data for well-characterized products are scarce, and there are for example only two values found for french fries (GI=90 and 107) (Wolever et al., 1994; Fernandes et al., 2005).
The aim of the present study was to evaluate postprandial satiety of potato products, and its relation to glycaemic response in healthy subjects using well-defined potato products. Both energy-equivalent (1000 kJ as used in the study by Holt et al., 1995) and carbohydrate-equivalent portions (50 g available carbohydrates) were used as basis for comparison. White wheat bread (WWB) was included in the equi-carbohydrate study to allow for calculation of GI. Mashed potatoes prepared from an instant potato powder were tested at two different portion sizes by using different amounts of water for reconstitution. Two of the potato test meals (boiled potatoes with oil and french fries) contained a similar amount of sunflower oil to make it possible to study the potential effects of fat co-ingestion on satiety and glycaemia, respectively.
Materials and methods
Subjects and test meals
Thirteen healthy subjects, nine men and four women, aged 19–27 years, with normal BMIs (BMI±s.d.; 21.8±3.1 kg/m2) and without drug therapy, participated in the study. Four meals were included in the study, each meal containing 1000 kJ. French fries (Ica Handlarna, Solna, Sweden) were bought locally. The french fries, containing 8% fat (sunflower oil), were heated in an oven at 250°C for 9 min (according to the manufacturer's instructions), before being served with an addition of 0.5 g NaCl. Mashed potatoes were prepared from an instant potato powder (Felix, Eslöv, Sweden); 69 g of powder was reconstituted with either 200 or 330 g water before being served (mashed small and mashed large, respectively). The potato powder contains 4 g NaCl/100 g powder. Potatoes of the variety King Edward (mealy winter variety) were bought locally. Before being served, the potatoes were peeled and boiled for 18–20 min (until soft). At serving, 0.5 g NaCl was sprinkled on the potatoes. The potatoes were freshly cooked before each test meal to avoid starch retrogradation. The meals were served either with water or with a combination of milk and water. Commercial milk (1.5% fat) produced by Skånemejerier (Malmö, Sweden) was bought locally. Milk (60 g) was served with boiled potatoes and the french fries to compensate for the milk component in the mashed potatoes. In total, 250 ml of liquid was served with each meal. Also, 150 ml of coffee or tea was included in each meal. The test subjects were allowed to choose between these drinks at the first occasion and then retained the same drink through all the test meals. The subjects were served the meals for breakfast in random order after an overnight fast. The tests were performed approximately 1 week apart and commenced at the same time in the morning. All meals were consumed over 12 min. The nutritional composition of each food per 1000 kJ is listed in Table 1. Data on french fries are based on manufacturer's data, whereas the remaining values are from food tables (Livsmedelsverket, 2001). The starch content in the potatoes was calculated by use of a formula stated by Leeman et al. (2005), where a strong correlation between dry matter content and available starch content was found in boiled potatoes. In Table 1, there are also data on serving weight, meal volume, energy density and dry matter content. Volume was measured with a rapeseed equipment. Milk added to french fries and boiled potatoes is included in the nutrient composition, but not in volume, weight or dry matter measurements.
Subjects and test meals
Fourteen healthy subjects, six men and eight women, aged 20–28 years, with normal BMIs (21.9±2.0 kg/m2) and without drug therapy, participated in the study. Four meals were included in the study and all test meals contained 50 g available carbohydrates. The french fries were of the same brand and were prepared in the same manner as in Study 1. Potatoes of the cultivar Asterix (firm winter variety) were bought from a local farmer. They were peeled and freshly cooked for 30 min before each test to avoid starch retrogradation. At serving, 0.5 g NaCl was added to the potatoes. The boiled potatoes were served either with or without the addition of 15.4 g sunflower oil (Ica Handlarna, Solna, Sweden) to match the type of oil and lipid content of the french fries portion. WWB was used as a reference meal and was prepared according to Liljeberg and Björck (1994). NaCl content of WWB is approximately 1.4 g/portion. The composition of the meals is shown in Table 2. The starch content of WWB, potatoes and french fries was analysed according to Holm et al. (1986), and remaining data were obtained from manufacturer's data or food tables (Livsmedelsverket, 2001). The added oil is not included in the dry matter content of the meal ‘boiled potatoes + oil’. The subjects were served the meals for breakfast in random order after an overnight fast. The tests were performed approximately 1 week apart and commenced at the same time in the morning. All test meals were served with 150 ml water and consumed over 12 min. Also, 150 ml coffee or tea was included in each meal. The test subjects were allowed to choose between these drinks at the first occasion and then retained the same drink through all the test meals.
Sampling and analysis
Finger-prick capillary blood samples were taken using Haemolance™ (HaeMedic AB, Munka Ljungby, Sweden) before the meal (0) and at 20, 45, 70, 180 and 240 min after the meal in Study 1 and before the meal (0) and at 20, 45, 70, 120 and 180 min after the meal in Study 2 for determination of blood glucose (HemoCue B-glucose analyser; HemoCue AB, Ängelholm, Sweden). Assessments of feelings of hunger/satiety were performed immediately after each blood sampling. The rating scale used at each time point was bipolar and contained nine different wordings graded between ‘painfully hungry’ to ‘full to nausea’ (Liljeberg et al., 1995). The test subjects filled out the forms themselves. The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Medicine at Lund University.
Calculations and statistical methods
For each subject and test meal, the incremental blood glucose- and satiety areas under the curves (AUCs) were calculated (GraphPad Prism, version 3.0; GraphPad Software, San Diego, CA, USA). GI was calculated from the 120 min incremental blood glucose area by using WWB as a reference (GI=100) (FAO/WHO, 1998). Values are presented as means±s.e.m. and significant differences among the time points and AUCs were assessed with a general linear model (analysis of variance) followed by Tukey's multiple comparisons test (MINITAB Statistical Software, release 13 for Windows; Minitab Inc, State College, PA, USA). Spearman's rank correlation was used to study the relations between blood glucose, satiety and meal composition parameters. Correlations were performed for AUCs 0–45 and 70–180 min, respectively. A correlation for each subject was calculated and from these values the mean value of Spearman's correlation coefficient was obtained. To determine the P-value, a permutation test was performed by using MATLAB with the null hypothesis that no correlation existed (the alternative hypothesis was that the data were correlated). Values of P<0.05 were considered significant.
Energy-equivalent meals (Study 1)
The blood glucose response at 20 and 45 min after the test meal with french fries was significantly lower than after all other meals (Figure 1; P<0.05). In addition, at 70 min the blood glucose response was lower after the french fries compared with the small portion of mashed potatoes and the boiled potatoes (P<0.01). The blood glucose AUC was significantly lower after french fries compared with the other test meals (Table 3; P<0.05). No significant differences were seen in blood glucose increment between the meals with boiled potatoes and mashed potatoes; neither at specific time points nor in AUCs.
Boiled potatoes produced the highest satiety scores and deviated significantly from the french fries at 20–70 min postprandially (Figure 2; P<0.05). Also, the smaller portion with mashed potatoes was more satiating at 20–45 min after the meal than were the french fries. Satiety AUC was significantly lower for french fries compared with boiled potatoes at all time intervals and compared with the small portion of mashed potatoes at 0–45 and 0–70 min (Table 4; P<0.05).
No correlations were found between blood glucose and satiety or between blood glucose or satiety and nutritive or physical characteristics of the different meals.
Carbohydrate-equivalent meals (Study 2)
When comparing carbohydrate-equivalent meals, the blood glucose response was significantly lower after french fries at 20–45 min compared with boiled potatoes without oil, and at 20–70 min compared with boiled potatoes with oil (Figure 3; P<0.05). At 120 and 180 min, both meals of boiled potatoes gave significantly lower blood glucose responses than french fries and at 120 min, both boiled potato meals also gave significantly lower glucose responses than WWB. Blood glucose AUCs, as calculated for 0–45, 0–70, 0–120 and 0–180 min, were significantly lower after french fries compared with potatoes with oil (Table 5; P<0.05). Furthermore, the AUCs after french fries were significantly lower than with potatoes without oil as calculated for 0–45, 0–70 and 0–120 min (Table 6; P<0.05). GI was significantly lower for french fries (77) compared with boiled potatoes with oil (131) and without oil (111). No significant differences in satiety sensation were found between the meals; neither for AUCs nor at specific time points (Table 6, Figure 4; P<0.05). No correlations were found between blood glucose and satiety or between blood glucose or satiety and the nutritive or physical characteristics of the different meals.
Energy-equivalent meals (Study 1)
The main finding of the first study was that boiled potatoes were significantly more satiating than french fries in the early postprandial phase (70 min) when served as energy-equivalent meals. This finding supports the view that an elevated early glycaemia per se may be advantageous in relation to satiety. The result is also in line with the study by Holt et al. (1995), where potatoes were found to be more satiating than many other foods, including french fries, when served as 1000 kJ portions. According to a review by Anderson and Woodend (2003), high but not low glycaemic responses are associated with increased satiety and/or reduced food intake in the early postprandial phase (1 h) (Holt et al., 1995; Anderson et al., 2002), whereas the reverse occurs in the later phase after a meal (up to 6 h) (van Amelsvoort and Weststrate, 1992). An inverse relationship between glycaemic response and satiety sensation has also been reported, suggesting that low-GI foods are more satiating (Ludwig, 2000; Roberts, 2000), although it has been pointed out that in some of these studies the control of confounding variables was not adequate (Roberts et al., 2002). Thus, the overall glycaemic profile is important, and high-GI foods may show benefits in the early phase after food intake, whereas maintained glycaemia may result in preserved satiety also in the later postprandial phase. If the experimental design had been based on ad libitum food intake rather than energy-equivalent loads, it cannot be excluded that the voluntary food intake instead should have been reduced in the case of boiled potatoes. It should be noted that the lowered glycaemia obtained with french fries vs boiled potatoes using energy balanced meals does not result only from a more lente delivery of glucose to the blood, but also from a lower carbohydrate load.
Holt et al. (1995) suggested that the higher bulk in the case of the boiled potatoes (368 g) possibly explain the increased satiety response compared with french fries (93 g). However, in our study, the meal with boiled potatoes (300 g) tended to produce a higher satiety than the large portion of mashed potatoes (380 g). A normal portion of boiled potatoes is generally considered to be within the range of 150–200 g (Enghardt Barbieri and Lindvall, 2003). Thus, it could be that boiled potato tubers were perceived as more difficult to eat than mashed potatoes. In fact, some of the participants perceived the meal with boiled potatoes as difficult to consume, mainly because the portion was experienced as large but also owing to the fact that subjects were not accustomed to have potatoes for breakfast. However, no measurements on subjective palatability and/or physical comfort/discomfort were performed.
In the present study, no correlations were found between satiety and nutritive or physical characteristics of the meals. One study emphasized portion size and energy density as being the strongest determinants of the satiating effect of energy-equivalent meals (Holt et al., 1996). Energy density (kJ/g) has also been proposed as one of the key determinants of energy intake (Rolls and Bell, 1999; Kral et al., 2004). Furthermore, Kral et al. (2004) conclude that energy density and portion size act independently to affect energy intake. It has also been proposed that we tend to eat the same amount/volume that we are accustomed to, independently of energy content or composition of the meal (Rolls and Bell, 1999). In the present study, the portion with boiled potatoes in particular was perceived as larger than most subjects would normally consume, whereas the portion of french fries was perceived as quite small.
Carbohydrate-equivalent meals (Study 2)
In the study comparing carbohydrate-equivalent meals, french fries resulted in a significantly lower GI (77) than boiled potatoes; both with (GI=131) and without (GI=111) addition of 15 g of sunflower oil to match the nutrient composition and fat quality of the french fries. The meal of french fries exhibits a curve with a low glucose peak followed by a sustained net increment. Few GI data of french fries are available in the literature. The GI of frozen/oven-heated french fries in the present study is lower than that reported by Wolever et al. (1994) for frozen/microwave-heated french fries (107), or for frozen/oven-heated french fries (90) as reported by Fernandes et al. (2005). A number of studies have been dealing with the effects of co-ingestion of fat on the glycaemic response, some showing a lowering effect (Collier and O'Dea, 1983; Lunetta et al., 1995) whereas no effect was observed in a study with non-insulin-dependent diabetics (Gannon et al., 1993). According to Wolever and Bolognesi (1996), variations in protein and fat content of mixed meals had negligible effects on post-meal glycaemia. Furthermore, in a study by Owen and Wolever (2003), variation of fat intake across the normal range (17–44% energy) did not affect the glycaemic response to white bread. In most of the studies referred to above, the fat incorporated in the meals was butter or margarine, and it cannot be excluded that the degree of saturation of the fat might have affected the outcome. However, in a study where fat with different degrees of saturation was added to meals of mashed potatoes, no differences appeared neither in glycaemia, insulinaemia nor in satiating response (MacIntosh et al., 2003). Thus, it seems as if addition of sunflower oil in the amounts tested here should not be expected to lower the postprandial blood glucose response. No correlation was found between blood glucose response and fat content.
It is known that the frying process increases the amount of resistant starch (RS) in potato products as measured in vitro (Garcia-Alonso and Goni, 2000). When studying the effect of different food preparation methods on the in vitro digestibility of starch in potatoes, frying of potato slices increased the amount of RS (Kingman and Englyst, 1994). However, the type of fat used for frying (lard, vegetable oil or butter) did not affect the digestibility of starch. Although not a prerequisite, formation of RS during processing is frequently associated with a lowered rate of starch hydrolysis of the starch bulk, thus causing a lowered glycaemic response. Another possible explanation to the lower glycaemic response observed after french fries compared with boiled potatoes served with oil in the present study, may be formation of amylose–lipid complexes during frying and/or reheating. These complexes are more slowly digested by α-amylase in vitro (Cui and Oates, 1999; Tufvesson et al., 2001) and in vivo (Holm et al., 1983). The lowered glycaemic response after french fries compared with boiled potatoes served with oil is noteworthy, and it would have been interesting to study whether this effect can be achieved with less oil, other types of oils or following other methods of potato processing (including different surface-area/volume ratios).
In the present study, no differences were observed in satiating capacity between the different meals and no correlation was found either between blood glucose or satiety rating and the composition of the meals.
In the present study, no effect on satiety was seen owing to GI features as judged from results obtained using equi-carbohydrate test meals. A suggested mechanism for the higher satiating capacity of low-GI foods in general are that they are less refined than their high-GI counterparts, and that they owing to this are more difficult to consume, mainly because of a lower energy density (owing to a higher fibre content and/or water content) and lower palatability (Holt et al., 1996). Interestingly, postprandial blood glucose AUCs for boiled potatoes turned out to be within the same range in both studies as measured in the early postprandial phase; for example AUC 0–70 min=129 in the energy-equivalent study vs AUC 0–70 min=126 in the study with carbohydrate-equivalent meals. The carbohydrate contents were equal (50 g) and it thus seems as if it is possible to receive reproducible results when measuring glycaemia after meals with boiled potatoes, despite the use of different subjects and potato varieties. To our knowledge, there is at present no data in the literature indicating that the firmness of the potato tubers should have an influence on satiety. When it comes to blood glucose responses, Henry et al. (2005) found that floury potatoes exhibited a somewhat higher GI than waxy varieties although the differences did not reach statistical difference. Neither in a study by Soh and Brand-Miller (1999) were any differences noted between three different varieties. Unfortunately, the texture of the different tubers was not specified in this study.
The meal with french fries was about 1.5 times larger in the study with carbohydrate-equivalent meals compared with the french fries served on energy equivalence. Surprisingly, the satiety response was four times higher with the larger (AUC 0–180 min=613) compared with the smaller portion of french fries (AUC 0–180 min=152). This raises the question whether a threshold value in terms of meal size is required before the satiety sensation is affected. According to most manufacturers, a normal french fries portion is around 150 g, that is in between the two sizes tested, and it would have been interesting to study satiety response after a normal sized portion. It should be kept in mind that in the present studies, subjective satiety rather than actual food intake was determined and it cannot be disregarded that such a measurement may have added valuable information.
Overall, no direct correlation was observed between postprandial blood glucose levels and satiety ranking. However, when comparing energy-equivalent meals, the french fries which elicited the lowest glycaemic response (AUC 0–45 min=35 vs=75–84 for boiled or mashed potatoes) was less satiating in the early postprandial phase (AUC 0–45 min=68 vs=148–201 for boiled or mashed potatoes). The connection between blood glucose and satiety seem to vary in different studies, some showing a correlation (van Amelsvoort and Weststrate, 1992; Ludwig et al., 1999) whereas others do not (Holt et al., 1996, 2001).
The design of the present studies has the advantage of being more similar to a natural setting in which equivalent amounts of energy or carbohydrates are consumed, but the present design does not allow identification of the parameter that had the highest impact on the satiety sensation. An interesting aspect regarding the possible connection between glycaemic response and satiety is the mechanism by which the low-GI features have been achieved; and it could be hypothesized that certain mechanisms are more effective as modulators of satiety than others. Studies with bread products added with Na-propionate (Liljeberg et al., 1995; Liljeberg and Björck, 1996) or acetic acid (Östman et al., 2005) as a means of lowering GI have resulted in higher satiety. In these cases, the lowered glycaemia is mediated through a delay in gastric emptying rate. In contrast, in a study with pasta and bread made from exactly the same ingredients, no differences could be found neither in satiety response nor in ad libitum food intake after 3 h (Barkeling et al., 1995). Furthermore, many other preabsorptive and postabsorptive signals for satiety exist, such as gastrointestinal hormones, and these may also contribute to the satiety sensation.
Boiled potatoes displayed significantly higher blood glucose responses than french fries in healthy subjects whether compared on energy or carbohydrate basis. The GI obtained for french fries (GI=77) was lower than previously reported in the literature (GI=90 and 107; Wolever et al., 1994; Fernandes et al., 2005) and was not explained by the fat content per se. Boiled and mashed potatoes displayed a high post-meal subjective satiety when using energy-equivalent test meals. Meal sizes within the range studied did not affect satiety.
Alvina M, Araya H (2004). Rapid carbohydrate digestion rate produced lesser short-term satiety in obese preschool children. Eur J Clin Nutr 58, 637–642.
Anderson GH, Catherine NL, Woodend DM, Wolever TM (2002). Inverse association between the effect of carbohydrates on blood glucose and subsequent short-term food intake in young men. Am J Clin Nutr 76, 1023–1030.
Anderson GH, Woodend D (2003). Effect of glycemic carbohydrates on short-term satiety and food intake. Nutr Rev 61, S17–S26.
Barkeling B, Granfelt Y, Björck I, Rössner S (1995). Effects of carbohydrates in the form of pasta and bread on food-intake and satiety in man. Nutr Res 15, 467–476.
Collier G, O'Dea K (1983). The effect of coingestion of fat on the glucose, insulin, and gastric inhibitory polypeptide responses to carbohydrate and protein. Am J Clin Nutr 37, 941–944.
Cui R, Oates CG (1999). The effect of amylose-lipid complex formation on enzyme susceptibility of sage starch. Food Chem 65, 417–425.
Enghardt Barbieri H, Lindvall C (2003). De svenska näringsrekommendationerna översatta till livsmedel. Livsmedelsverket: Uppsala.
FAO/WHO (1998). Carbohydrates in human nutrition. Report of a joint FAO/WHO expert consultation. FAO Food and Nutrition Paper 66, 1–140.
Fernandes G, Velangi A, Wolever TM (2005). Glycemic index of potatoes commonly consumed in North America. J Am Diet Assoc 105, 557–562.
Foster-Powell K, Holt SH, Brand-Miller JC (2002). International table of glycemic index and glycemic load values: 2002. Am J Clin Nutr 76, 5–56.
Gannon MC, Ercan N, Westphal SA, Nuttall FQ (1993). Effect of added fat on plasma glucose and insulin response to ingested potato in individuals with NIDDM. Diabet Care 16, 874–880.
Garcia-Alonso A, Goni I (2000). Effect of processing on potato starch: in vitro availability and glycaemic index. Nahrung 44, 19–22.
Henry CJ, Lightowler HJ, Strik CM, Storey M (2005). Glycaemic index values for commercially available potatoes in Great Britain. Br J Nutr 94, 917–921.
Holm J, Björck I, Drews A, Asp N-G (1986). A rapid method for the analysis of starch. Starch/Stärke 38, 224–226.
Holm J, Björck I, Ostrowska S, Eliasson AC, Asp NG, Larsson K et al. (1983). Digestibility of amylose-lipid complexes in vitro and in vivo. Starch/Stärke 35, 294–297.
Holt S, Miller JB, Petocz P (1996). Interrelationships among post prandial satiety, glucose and insulin responses and changes in subsequent food intake. Eur J Clin Nutr 50, 788–797.
Holt SH, Brand-Miller JC, Stitt PA (2001). The effects of equal-energy portions of different breads on blood glucose levels, feelings of fullness and subsequent food intake. J Am Diet Assoc 101, 767–773.
Holt SH, Miller JC, Petocz P, Farmakalidis E (1995). A satiety index of common foods. Eur J Clin Nutr 49, 675–690.
Kaplan RJ, Greenwood CE (2002). Influence of dietary carbohydrates and glycaemic response on subjective appetite and food intake in healthy elderly persons. Int J Food Sci Nutr 53, 305–316.
Kingman SM, Englyst HN (1994). The influence of food preparation methods on the in-vitro digestibility of starch in potatoes. Food Chem 49, 181–186.
Kral TV, Roe LS, Rolls BJ (2004). Combined effects of energy density and portion size on energy intake in women. Am J Clin Nutr 79, 962–968.
Leeman AM, Bårström LM, Björck IME (2005). In vitro availability of starch in heat-treated potatoes as related to genotype, weight and storage time. J Sci Food Agr 85, 751–756.
Liljeberg H, Björck I (1994). Bioavailability of starch in bread products. Postprandial glucose and insulin responses in healthy subjects and in vitro resistant starch content. Eur J Clin Nutr 48, 151–163.
Liljeberg HG, Björck IM (1996). Delayed gastric emptying rate as a potential mechanism for lowered glycemia after eating sourdough bread: studies in humans and rats using test products with added organic acids or an organic salt. Am J Clin Nutr 64, 886–893.
Liljeberg HG, Lönner CH, Björck IM (1995). Sourdough fermentation or addition of organic acids or corresponding salts to bread improves nutritional properties of starch in healthy humans. J Nutr 125, 1503–1511.
Livsmedelsverket (2001). Livsmedelstabell Energi och näringsämnen 2002. Livsmedelsverket: Uppsala.
Ludwig DS (2000). Dietary glycemic index and obesity. J Nutr 130, 280S–283S.
Ludwig DS, Majzoub JA, Al-Zahrani A, Dallal GE, Blanco I, Roberts SB (1999). High glycemic index foods, overeating, and obesity. Pediatrics 103, E26.
Lunetta M, Di Mauro M, Crimi S, Mughini L (1995). Influence of different cooking processes on the glycaemic response to potatoes in non-insulin dependent diabetic patients. Diab Nutr Metab 8, 49–53.
MacIntosh CG, Holt SH, Brand-Miller JC (2003). The degree of fat saturation does not alter glycemic, insulinemic or satiety responses to a starchy staple in healthy men. J Nutr 133, 2577–2580.
Owen B, Wolever TM (2003). Effect of fat on glycaemic responses in normal subjects: a dose-response study. Nutr Res 23, 1341–1347.
Pawlak DB, Ebbeling CB, Ludwig DS (2002). Should obese patients be counselled to follow a low-glycaemic index diet? Yes Obes Rev 3, 235–243.
Raben A (2002). Should obese patients be counselled to follow a low-glycaemic index diet? No Obes Rev 3, 245–256.
Roberts SB (2000). High-glycemic index foods, hunger, and obesity: is there a connection? Nutr Rev 58, 163–169.
Roberts SB, McCrory MA, Saltzman E (2002). The influence of dietary composition on energy intake and body weight. J Am Coll Nutr 21, 140S–145S.
Rolls BJ, Bell EA (1999). Intake of fat and carbohydrate: role of energy density. Eur J Clin Nutr 53 (Suppl 1), S166–S173.
Rolls BJ, Bell EA, Thorwart ML (1999). Water incorporated into a food but not served with a food decreases energy intake in lean women. Am J Clin Nutr 70, 448–455.
Rolls BJ, Bell EA, Waugh BA (2000). Increasing the volume of a food by incorporating air affects satiety in men. Am J Clin Nutr 72, 361–368.
Soh NL, Brand-Miller J (1999). The glycaemic index of potatoes: the effect of variety, cooking method and maturity. Eur J Clin Nutr 53, 249–254.
Spieth LE, Harnish JD, Lenders CM, Raezer LB, Pereira MA, Hangen SJ et al. (2000). A low-glycemic index diet in the treatment of pediatric obesity. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 154, 947–951.
Tufvesson F, Skrabanja V, Björck I, Elmståhl HL, Eliasson AC (2001). Digestibility of starch systems containing amylose-glycerol monopalmitin complexes. Lebensm-Wiss Technol 34, 131–139.
van Amelsvoort JM, Weststrate JA (1992). Amylose-amylopectin ratio in a meal affects postprandial variables in male volunteers. Am J Clin Nutr 55, 712–718.
Warren JM, Henry CJK, Simonite V (2003). Low glycemic index breakfasts and reduced food intake in preadolescent children. Pediatrics 112, E414–E419.
Wolever TM, Bolognesi C (1996). Prediction of glucose and insulin responses of normal subjects after consuming mixed meals varying in energy, protein, fat, carbohydrate and glycemic index. J Nutr 126, 2807–2812.
Wolever TMS, Katzmanrelle L, Jenkins AL, Vuksan V, Josse RG, Jenkins DJA (1994). Glycemic index of 102 complex carbohydrate foods in patients with diabetes. Nutr Res 14, 651–669.
Östman E, Granfeldt Y, Persson L, Björck I (2005). Vinegar supplementation lowers glucose and insulin responses and increases satiety after a bread meal in healthy subjects. Eur J Clin Nutr 59, 983–988.
The authors thank Giorgia Guizzetti, Kristina Andersson and Yvonne Granfeldt for invaluable assistance.
Guarantor: I Björck.
Contributors: ML and IB made the design of the studies. ML was responsible for collection of data and statistical analysis of the collected data. ML, EÖ and IB contributed to the writing of the manuscript.
About this article
Cite this article
Leeman, M., Östman, E. & Björck, I. Glycaemic and satiating properties of potato products. Eur J Clin Nutr 62, 87–95 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602677
- blood glucose
- french fries
- glycaemic index
American Journal of Potato Research (2019)
European Journal of Nutrition (2019)
The effects of potatoes and other carbohydrate side dishes consumed with meat on food intake, glycemia and satiety response in children
Nutrition & Diabetes (2016)
Impact of resistant starch in three plantain (Musa AAB) products on glycaemic response of healthy volunteers
European Journal of Nutrition (2016)
Journal of Food Science and Technology (2015)