Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

Changes in thiamin intake and blood levels in young, overweight/obese women following hypocaloric diets based on the increased relative consumption of cereals or vegetables



To analyse the changes in thiamin intake and blood levels of young, overweight/obese women following slightly hypocaloric diets based on the increased relative consumption of foods whose intakes were most removed from the ideal: cereals and vegetables.


The women were randomly assigned to one of two slightly hypocaloric diets: diet V, in which the consumption of vegetables was increased, or diet C, in which the consumption of cereals (especially breakfast cereals) was increased.


The study subjects were 67 young women with a body mass index of 24–35 kg/m2.


Dietetic, anthropometrics and biochemical data were collected at the start of the study and again at 2 and 6 weeks.


The reduction in energy intake was similar in both groups. However, diet C subjects lost significantly more weight. Blood thiamin concentration was higher in group C women than in group V women at 2 and 6 weeks. Compared to initial values, group C subjects showed a higher blood thiamin level at 2 weeks. The highest blood thiamin levels seen in group C women may have been due to their greater thiamin intake, their higher thiamin dietetic density, and a higher thiamin/carbohydrates ratio at both week 2 and 6 of the intervention period.


Increasing the relative consumption of breakfast cereals within the context of a slightly hypocaloric diet can help in weight control and improve thiamine intake and blood levels.


This work was financed by Kellogg España via the Universidad-Empresa project 362/2003.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution

Access options

Rent or buy this article

Get just this article for as long as you need it


Prices may be subject to local taxes which are calculated during checkout

Figure 1


  • Albertson AM, Anderson GH, Crockett SJ, Goebel MT (2003). Ready-to-eat cereal consumption: its relationship with BMI and nutrient intake of children aged 4 to 12 years. J Am Diet Assoc 103, 1613–1619.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bakker SJ, ter Maaten JC, Gans RO (2000). Thiamine supplementation to prevent induction of low birth weight by conventional therapy for gestational diabetes mellitus. Med Hypotheses 55, 88–90.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Botticher B, Botticher D (1987). A new HPLC-method for the simultaneous determination of B1-, B2- and B6-vitamers in serum and whole blood. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 57, 273–278.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Department of Nutrition (2004a). Food composition. A basic tool for assessing nutritional status. In: Ortega RM, López-Sobaler AM, Requejo AM and Andrés P (eds). Ed. Complutense: Madrid.

  • Department of Nutrition (2004b). Recommended daily intakes of energy and nutrients for the Spanish population. In: Ortega RM, Requejo AM, Navia B and López-Sobaler AM (eds). Department of Nutrition: Madrid.

  • Federación de Industrias de Alimentos y Bebidas (FIAB) (2004). Organizaciones de Consumidores, Agencia Española de Seguridad Alimentaria y Ministerio de Sanidad y Consumo. Vida activa+alimentación saludable=Suma Salud (An active life+healthy eating=health all round). In: Ortega RM and Requejo AM (eds). FIAB: Madrid.

  • Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) (2001). Human Vitamin and Mineral Requirements. Report of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation held in Bangkok, Thailand, September, Food and Nutrition Division, pp 27–51. FAO: Rome.

  • Galvin MA, Kiely M, Flynn A (2003). Impact of ready-to-eat breakfast cereal (RTEBC) consumption on adequacy of micronutrient intakes and compliance with dietary recommendations in Irish adults. Public Health Nutr 6, 351–363.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Gibson S (2003). Micronutrient intakes, micronutrient status and lipid profiles among young people consuming different amounts of breakfast cereals: further analysis of data from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of Young People aged 4 to 18 years. Public Health Nutr 6, 815–820.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Manore MM (2000). Effect of physical activity on thiamine, riboflavin, and vitamin B-6 requirements. Am J Clin Nutr 72, 598S–606S.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Muroyama K, Murosaki S, Yamamoto Y, Odaka H, Chung HC, Miyoshi M (2003). Anti-obesity effects of a mixture of thiamin, arginine, caffeine, and citric acid in non-insulin dependent diabetic KK mice. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 49, 56–63.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Navia B, Ortega RM, Requejo AM, Mena MC, Perea JM, López-Sobaler AM (2003). Influence of the desire to lose weight on food habits, and knowledge of the characteristics of a balanced diet, in a group of Madrid university students. Eur J Clin Nutr 57, 90S–93S.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Neumark-Sztainer D, Hannan PJ, Story M, Perry CL (2004). Weight-control behaviors among adolescent girls and boys: implications for dietary intake. J Am Diet Assoc 104, 913–920.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ortega RM, Andrés P (1998). Carbohydrates and obesity. Med Clin (Barcelona) 110, 797–801.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Ortega RM, López-Sobaler AM, Rodríguez-Rodríguez E, Bermejo LM, García-González L, López-Plaza B (2005). Response to a weight control program based on approximating the diet to its theoretical ideal. Nutr Hosp 20, 393–402.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Ortega RM, López-Sobaler AM, Andrés P, Requejo AM, Molinero LM (2004). DIAL software for assessing diets and food calculations. Departamento de Nutrición (UCM) y Alce Ingeniería, S.A. Madrid. 4 May 2006).

  • Ortega RM, Requejo AM, Andrés P (1999a). Dietary influences and control of body weight. Nutr Obes 2, 4–13.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ortega RM, Requejo AM, López-Sobaler AM (2003a). Activity questionnaire. In: Requejo AM, Ortega RM (eds). Nutriguía. Manual of Clinical Nutrition in Primary Care pp 468. Ed. Complutense: Madrid.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ortega RM, Requejo AM, López-Sobaler AM (2003b). Questionnaires for dietetic studies and the assessment of nutritional status. In: Requejo AM, Ortega RM (eds). Nutriguía. Manual of Clinical Nutrition in Primary Care pp 456–459. Ed. Complutense: Madrid.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ortega RM, Requejo AM, Carcela M, Pascual MJ, Montero P (1999b). Useful health and dietary criteria in weight control. Ayuntamiento de Madrid (Área de Salud y Consumo. Dirección de Servicios de Higiene y Salud Pública, Escuela de Sanidad y Consumo). Departamento de Nutrición. Universidad Complutense de Madrid: Madrid.

  • Ortega RM, Requejo AM, López-Sobaler AM, Navia B, Perea JM, Mena MC, Faci M, Lozano MC, Navarro AR (2000). Knowledge of what constitutes a balanced diet and its relationship with food habits in university students. Nutr Clin 20, 19–25.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ortega RM, Requejo AM, Quintas ME, Andrés P, Redondo MR, López-Sobaler AM (1996a). Lack of knowledge concerning the relationship between diet and weight control among university students. Nutr Clin 11, 25–31.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ortega RM, Requejo AM, Quintas ME, Sánchez-Quiles B, López Sobaler AM, Andrés P (1996b). Estimated energy balance in female university students: differences with respect to body mass index and concern about body weight. Int J Obes Relat Metab 20, 1127–1129.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Pachocka L, Klosiewicz-Latoszek L (2002). Changes in vitamins intake in overweight and obese adults after low-energy diets. Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig 53, 243–252.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Patrini C, Griziotti A, Ricciardi L (2004). Obese individuals as thiamin storers. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 28, 920–924.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Preziosi P, Galan P, Deheeger M, Yacoub N, Drewnowski A, Hercberg S (1999). Breakfast type, daily nutrient intakes and vitamin and mineral status of French children, adolescents, and adults. J Am Coll Nutr 18, 171–178.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Stamler J, Dolecek TA (1997). Relation of food and nutrient intakes to body mass in the special intervention and usual care groups in the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial. Am J Clin Nutr 65, 366S–373S.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Subar AF, Krebs-Smith SM, Cook A, Kahle LI (1998). Dietary sources of nutrients among US adults, 1989 to 1991. J Am Diet Assoc 98, 537–547.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Tallaksen CME, Bohmer T, Bell H (1991). Concomitant determination of thiamin and its phosphate esters in human blood and serum by high-performance liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr 564, 127–136.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Turkki PR, Ingerman L, Schroeder LA, Chung RS, Chen M, Russo-Mcgraw MA, Dearlove J (1992). Thiamin and vitamin B6 intakes and erythrocyte transketolase and aminotransferase activities in morbidly obese females before and after gastroplasty. J Am Coll Nutr 11, 272–282.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • van der Beek EJ, Lowik MRH, Hulshof KFAM, Kistemaker C (1994). Combinations of low thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B6 and vitamin C intake among Dutch adults. (Dutch Nutrition Surveillance System). J Am Coll Nutr 13, 383–391.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • World Health Organization (WHO) (1995). Methodology of Nutritional Surveillance. Physical condition: use and interpretation of anthropometric data. Report of a joint FAO/UNICEF/WHO expert consultation. Technical Report Series 854, World Health Organization: Geneva.

  • World Health Organization (1985). Energy and protein requirements. Report of a joint FAO/WHO/ONU expert consultation. Technical report series 724. pp 71-80. World Health Organization: Geneva.

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to R M Ortega.

Additional information

Guarantor: RM Ortega.

Contributors: RMO, PA and AMLS have been involved in the study design and data analysis. ERR, AA and LMB participated in data collection and recording. ERR, AA, LMB, LGG and BB also contributed to the analysis of the data, and revision of the paper.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Ortega, R., Andrés, P., López-Sobaler, A. et al. Changes in thiamin intake and blood levels in young, overweight/obese women following hypocaloric diets based on the increased relative consumption of cereals or vegetables. Eur J Clin Nutr 61, 77–82 (2007).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:


  • thiamin
  • overweight
  • obesity
  • cereals
  • vegetables
  • young women

This article is cited by


Quick links