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Effects of food form on appetite and energy intake in lean and obese young adults

Abstract

Objective:

To investigate the independent effect of food form on appetite and energy intake in lean and obese adults using high carbohydrate, fat or protein food stimuli.

Design:

Crossover dietary challenge with matched beverage and solid food forms: high carbohydrate (watermelon and watermelon juice); high protein (cheese and milk); high fat (coconut meat and coconut milk).

Subjects:

A total of 120 lean (18–23 kg/m2; N=60) and obese (30–35 kg/m2; N=60) adults (18–50 years old) with stable body weight. Forty different participants (N=20 lean and 20 obese) were tested with each of the food systems.

Measurements:

Appetitive sensations, food palatability and dietary intake.

Results:

Regardless of the predominant energy source, the beverage food form elicited a weaker compensatory dietary response than the matched solid food form. Thus, total daily energy intake was significantly higher by 12.4, 19 and 15% on days the beverage forms of the high-carbohydrate, -fat and -protein foods were ingested, respectively. This was due more to a weak effect on satiety than satiation. The obese participants had higher energy intake at the lunch, including the beverage high-protein load, but overall differences between lean and obese participants were small and not systematic.

Conclusion:

Food rheology exerts an independent effect on energy intake. Dietary compensation for beverages is weaker than for solid food forms of comparable nutrient content. Thus, they pose a greater risk for promoting positive energy balance.

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Acknowledgements

This work was supported by PHS grant no. 1 R01 DK 063185 and CNPq, Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES), Brasília/Brazil.

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Correspondence to R D Mattes.

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Mourao, D., Bressan, J., Campbell, W. et al. Effects of food form on appetite and energy intake in lean and obese young adults. Int J Obes 31, 1688–1695 (2007). https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ijo.0803667

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ijo.0803667

Keywords

  • viscosity
  • beverage
  • energy intake
  • appetite
  • feeding
  • human

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