Viral membrane fusion

Viral membrane fusion is the process by which enveloped viruses enter host cells. It involves the merging (fusion) of the virus membrane with the host cell membrane or at an intracellular location following virus uptake by endocytosis. Fusion is mediated by transmembrane proteins that are anchored on the virus surface.

Latest Research and Reviews

  • Research |

    Structural and functional analyses reveal how 9-O-acetyl sialic acid is recognized by the human coronavirus OC43 S glycoprotein and how this interaction promotes viral entry.

    • M. Alejandra Tortorici
    • , Alexandra C. Walls
    • , Yifei Lang
    • , Chunyan Wang
    • , Zeshi Li
    • , Danielle Koerhuis
    • , Geert-Jan Boons
    • , Berend-Jan Bosch
    • , Félix A. Rey
    • , Raoul J. de Groot
    •  & David Veesler
  • Research | | open

    The respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) F glycoprotein forms a trimeric complex and mediates viral entry. Using structures of RSV F in complex with antibodies, Gilman et al. here show a breathing motion of the prefusion conformation of F, resulting in transient opening of the trimeric complex in solution and on the cell surface.

    • Morgan S. A. Gilman
    • , Polina Furmanova-Hollenstein
    • , Gabriel Pascual
    • , Angélique B. van ‘t Wout
    • , Johannes P. M. Langedijk
    •  & Jason S. McLellan
  • Research | | open

    Here, the authors present the structure of the HIV envelope (Env) protein from a transmitted founder virus and show that, while the overall structure of the Env trimer is similar to other closed trimers, the fusion peptide is buried in the hydrophobic core of the trimer, which is similar to open state trimers.

    • Neeti Ananthaswamy
    • , Qianglin Fang
    • , Wadad AlSalmi
    • , Swati Jain
    • , Zhenguo Chen
    • , Thomas Klose
    • , Yingyuan Sun
    • , Yue Liu
    • , Marthandan Mahalingam
    • , Subhash Chand
    • , Sodsai Tovanabutra
    • , Merlin L. Robb
    • , Michael G. Rossmann
    •  & Venigalla B. Rao
  • Research | | open

    The fusion peptide (FP) of HIV envelope (Env) is critical in the cell entry process. Here, Kumar et al. present crystal structures of B41 SOSIP.664 Env trimer and show the dynamic nature of the FP and proximal region, which likely relates to conformational rearrangements required for membrane fusion.

    • Sonu Kumar
    • , Anita Sarkar
    • , Pavel Pugach
    • , Rogier W. Sanders
    • , John P. Moore
    • , Andrew B. Ward
    •  & Ian A. Wilson
  • Reviews |

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of lower respiratory tract disease in young children and elderly people. In this Review, Battles and McLellan summarize our current understanding of RSV entry, describe progress on the development of new interventions and conclude with a perspective on gaps in our knowledge that require further investigation.

    • Michael B. Battles
    •  & Jason S. McLellan
  • Research |

    The interactions between HIV-1 Env and host cell receptors CD4 and CCR5 or CXCR4 are examined using direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy and fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy imaging, revealing a dynamic three-step process leading to formation of the pre-fusion complex.

    • Maro Iliopoulou
    • , Rory Nolan
    • , Luis Alvarez
    • , Yasunori Watanabe
    • , Charles A. Coomer
    • , G. Maria Jakobsdottir
    • , Thomas A. Bowden
    •  & Sergi Padilla-Parra

News and Comment