Transplantation tolerance

Definition

Transplantation tolerance is a state in which the immune system of the recipient of a tissue or organ transplantation does not attack the transplanted tissue. Transplantation tolerance is induced by immunosuppression, and prevents rejection of the transplant.

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Latest Research and Reviews

  • Reviews |

    The functions of the complement system are diverse and extend beyond its role in host defence; complement activation is now known to contribute to numerous immunological, inflammatory and age-related conditions, including kidney disorders. Here, John Lambris and colleagues discuss the key activating, regulatory, and effector mechanisms of the complement system. They highlight important crosstalk connections with other regulatory systems, and, with a focus on kidney disease and transplantation, describe the involvement of complement in clinical conditions as well as promising therapeutic approaches.

    • Daniel Ricklin
    • , Edimara S. Reis
    •  & John D. Lambris
  • Reviews |

    The unique immunomodulatory properties of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) make them a promising candidate for cell therapy in organ transplantation. Here, the authors review preclinical data that support the potential tolerance-inducing effects of MSCs in transplant models and the results of initial clinical studies in kidney transplantation.

    • Federica Casiraghi
    • , Norberto Perico
    • , Monica Cortinovis
    •  & Giuseppe Remuzzi
  • Reviews |

    The incidence of cancer in transplant recipients is indisputably higher than that of the age-matched general population, and the increased cancer development in transplant recipients who require immunosuppression to avoid graft rejection is well recognized. This Review discusses the advances with mTOR inhibitors that interfere with tumour development via immune and non-immune mechanisms, and the current and future perspectives on how best to normalize the unacceptably high rates of post-transplantation malignancies are highlighted.

    • Edward K. Geissler
  • Reviews |

    In the past, only patients with fully HLA-matched donors were able to benefit from blood or bone-marrow transplantation (BMT) for a variety of haematological malignancies. Owing to the development of a variety of immunomodulatory strategies, patients with no HLA-matched donor, who can therefore receive an HLA-haploidentical BMT, can expect the same or similar outcomes as those receiving HLA-matched BMT. In this Review, the authors describe the new approaches to immunomodulation that have made HLA-haploidentical BMT a realistic therapeutic approach.

    • Christopher G. Kanakry
    • , Ephraim J. Fuchs
    •  & Leo Luznik
  • Reviews |

    The development of effective desensitization strategies has enabled ABO incompatible (ABOi) kidney transplantation to become an established treatment option for patients with end-stage renal disease. Here, the authors review the mechanisms that underlie acceptance and rejection of ABOi grafts, recipient desensitization strategies, patient outcomes and novel treatment strategies that might promote graft acceptance and enable minimization of immunosuppression.

    • Georg A. Böhmig
    • , Andreas M. Farkas
    • , Farsad Eskandary
    •  & Thomas Wekerle
  • Research | | open

    Tweaking immune characteristics of donors and recipients could allow for successful cross-species organ transplantation. Here, the authors show that an anti-CD40 antibody therapy of baboons that received heart transplants from genetically modified pigs is key to their long-term survival.

    • Muhammad M. Mohiuddin
    • , Avneesh K. Singh
    • , Philip C. Corcoran
    • , Marvin L. Thomas III
    • , Tannia Clark
    • , Billeta G. Lewis
    • , Robert F. Hoyt
    • , Michael Eckhaus
    • , Richard N. Pierson III
    • , Aaron J. Belli
    • , Eckhard Wolf
    • , Nikolai Klymiuk
    • , Carol Phelps
    • , Keith A. Reimann
    • , David Ayares
    •  & Keith A. Horvath

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