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Soft lithography refers to printing and moulding techniques to produce microstructures or nanostructures from elastomeric polymer such as polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). The techniques are flexible and inexpensive.
Tissue engineering applications call for controllable micro-structural
units as a platform, but their fabrication remains challenging. Here, Jeong et
al. show a method that enables soft materials to self-organize into highly packed
micro-honeycomb structures with aspect ratios up to 500, and tunable shapes.
This protocol describes how to immobilize living cells into polydimethylsiloxane stamps, generating an array of living cells that can undergo atomic force microscopy, with no chemical or physical denaturation.
Multiplex lithography is a technique that can be used to fabricate complex soft materials. Here, the authors develop a method to prepare multilevel multiscale structures and demonstrate its application on polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells which display decreased membrane resistance and increased electrochemical active surface area.
Cracks in material are not always unwanted; sometimes, they can be manipulated to produce micro and nanoscale patterns. Here, Kim et al. report a cracking-assisted nanofabrication technique based on conventional photolithography process, which allows accurate control over the geometry of the nanopatterns in arbitrary shape.