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Recent microbiome genome-wide association studies have identified numerous associations between human genetic variants and the gut microbiome. Here, the authors review how genetic variation in the host can alter the composition of the gut microbiome towards a disease state, with a focus on disorders of immunity and metabolism.
Adipose tissue contains macrophages that can influence both local and systemic metabolism via the secretion of cytokines. Here, Nawaz et al. report that M2-like macrophages, present in adipose tissue, create a microenvironment that inhibits proliferation of adipocyte progenitors due to the secretion of TGF-β1
A new population-based observational cohort study involving more than 1.2 million live births highlights the increased risk of congenital anomalies with increasing degrees of maternal overweight and obesity. However, by only considering data on live-born infants, the full impact of maternal overweight and obesity on this aspect of reproductive and child health is underestimated.