Nitrosylation is any chemical reaction that adds a nitrosyl group (NO). S-nitrosylation is a post-translational modification of proteins by which thiol groups (SH groups) of cysteine residues are modified by nitric oxide to generate S-nitrosothiols (protein S-nitrosocysteine), impacting protein function stability, and localization.

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News and Comment

  • News and Views |

    Protein S-nitrosylation is thought to be mediated primarily by nitric oxide synthases. S-nitrosylated GAPDH is now shown to function within signal transduction cascades as a nuclear nitrosylase. Along with other recent demonstrations of regulated protein–protein transnitrosylation, these findings point to a new mechanism of signal transduction with transformative implications for nitric oxide biology and redox signalling.

    • Jonathan S. Stamler
    •  & Douglas T. Hess
    Nature Cell Biology 12, 1024–1026
  • News |

    A University of Texas–led team has identified the nitrosylation of C. difficile toxins as a host defense mechanism that decreases cellular damage caused by the pathogen. The researchers are developing pharmacological strategies to augment this response to prevent recurrence after antibiotic treatment.

    • Chris Cain