Islets of Langerhans

Definition

The islets of Langerhans are the regions of the pancreas that contain cells that produce hormones. There are five types of cells in the islets of Langerhans: beta cells secrete insulin; alpha cells secrete glucagon; PP cells secrete pancreatic polypeptide; delta cells secrete somatostatin; and epsilon cells secrete ghrelin.

Latest Research and Reviews

  • Research | | open

    Beta-arrestins have key roles in development and metabolic functions as euglycaemic control and insulin sentitivity. Here Zhu et al. show that beta-arrestin-2 regulates insulin secretion and glucose tolerance in mice by promoting CAMKII functions in beta cells.

    • Lu Zhu
    • , Joana Almaça
    • , Prasanna K. Dadi
    • , Hao Hong
    • , Wataru Sakamoto
    • , Mario Rossi
    • , Regina J. Lee
    • , Nicholas C. Vierra
    • , Huiyan Lu
    • , Yinghong Cui
    • , Sara M. McMillin
    • , Nicole A. Perry
    • , Vsevolod V. Gurevich
    • , Amy Lee
    • , Bryan Kuo
    • , Richard D. Leapman
    • , Franz M. Matschinsky
    • , Nicolai M. Doliba
    • , Nikhil M. Urs
    • , Marc G. Caron
    • , David A. Jacobson
    • , Alejandro Caicedo
    •  & Jürgen Wess
  • Reviews |

    Islet transplantation can be an effective therapy for patients with type 1 diabetes, but its widespread use is limited by the need for lifelong immunosuppression. Here, Desai and Shea discuss the emerging potential of islet cell encapsulation including new strategies, assess key challenges facing the human translation of this technology and highlight encapsulation devices that have entered the clinic.

    • Tejal Desai
    •  & Lonnie D. Shea
  • Reviews |

    Islet transplantation has become a realistic treatment option for a subset of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. This Review outlines the techniques involved in the procedure, as well as the risks, long-term outcomes and advances in the care of patients after they have received an islet transplant.

    • A. M. James Shapiro
    • , Marta Pokrywczynska
    •  & Camillo Ricordi
  • Research | | open

    Diabetes is characterized by prolonged hyperglycaemia and tissue damage in pancreatic islets. Here, Brereton et al. show that chronic high glucose levels lead to glycogen accumulation in β-cells, associated with reduced autophagy, impaired metabolism, insulin granule depletion and apoptosis.

    • Melissa F. Brereton
    • , Maria Rohm
    • , Kenju Shimomura
    • , Christian Holland
    • , Sharona Tornovsky-Babeay
    • , Daniela Dadon
    • , Michaela Iberl
    • , Margarita V. Chibalina
    • , Sheena Lee
    • , Benjamin Glaser
    • , Yuval Dor
    • , Patrik Rorsman
    • , Anne Clark
    •  & Frances M. Ashcroft
  • Reviews |

    In this Review, Heiko Lickert and colleagues discuss β-cell heterogeneity, placing a particular emphasis on the role of islet architecture in defining phenotypic and functional plasticity among β cells. The potential to exploit β-cell heterogeneity and plasticity for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes in the context of regenerative therapies for diabetes mellitus is also discussed.

    • Sara S. Roscioni
    • , Adriana Migliorini
    • , Moritz Gegg
    •  & Heiko Lickert

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