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The climatic response to the 1257 Samalas eruption is unclear. Analyses of proxy data and medieval archives suggest that the eruption triggered some of the coldest summers of the past millennium, but only in some Northern Hemisphere regions.
A population genomics study reveals a high similarity between a New World landrace of African rice and an Ivory Coast landrace. Together with diaries from captains of slave ships, the evidence presented traces the ancestry of the New World rice to its African origin.
Theoretical electronic-structure methods are routinely used to estimate the parameters of complex kinetic models. It is now shown that uncertainty in such model parameters is correlated and that it can be quantified. An associated sensitivity analysis method is also derived that handles complex systems with many correlated reactions.
Societal upheaval occurred across Eurasia in the sixth and seventh centuries. Tree-ring reconstructions suggest a period of pronounced cooling during this time associated with several volcanic eruptions.
Discoveries over the past decade portend a paradigm shift in molecular biology; evidence suggests that RNA is not only functional as a messenger between DNA and protein but also involved in the regulation of genome organization and gene expression. This Timeline article surveys the emergence of the previously unsuspected world of regulatory RNA from a historical perspective.