Browse Articles

  • Letter |

    A Streptococcus pneumoniae toxin, pneumolysin, binds to MRC-1 on phagocytes to dampen immune responses and promote infection.

    • Karthik Subramanian
    • , Daniel R. Neill
    • , Hesham A. Malak
    • , Laura Spelmink
    • , Shadia Khandaker
    • , Giorgia Dalla Libera Marchiori
    • , Emma Dearing
    • , Alun Kirby
    • , Marie Yang
    • , Adnane Achour
    • , Johan Nilvebrant
    • , Per-Åke Nygren
    • , Laura Plant
    • , Aras Kadioglu
    •  & Birgitta Henriques-Normark
  • Letter |

    The ribonucleotide reductase large subunit of the Epstein–Barr virus, BORF2, inhibits the DNA cytosine deaminase activity of the host restriction factor APOBEC3B and sequesters it in perinuclear and cytoplasmic bodies, thus preserving viral genome integrity during lytic reactivation.

    • Adam Z. Cheng
    • , Jaime Yockteng-Melgar
    • , Matthew C. Jarvis
    • , Natasha Malik-Soni
    • , Ivan Borozan
    • , Michael A. Carpenter
    • , Jennifer L. McCann
    • , Diako Ebrahimi
    • , Nadine M. Shaban
    • , Edyta Marcon
    • , Jack Greenblatt
    • , William L. Brown
    • , Lori Frappier
    •  & Reuben S. Harris
  • Article |

    The E3 ligase TRIM43 ubiquitinates the centrosomal protein pericentrin, targeting it for proteasomal degradation, leading to alterations of the nuclear lamina that repress active viral chromatin states of a range of herpesviruses.

    • Florian Full
    • , Michiel van Gent
    • , Konstantin M. J. Sparrer
    • , Cindy Chiang
    • , Matthew A. Zurenski
    • , Myriam Scherer
    • , Norbert H. Brockmeyer
    • , Lucie Heinzerling
    • , Michael Stürzl
    • , Klaus Korn
    • , Thomas Stamminger
    • , Armin Ensser
    •  & Michaela U. Gack
  • Author Correction |

    • Tracey Goldstein
    • , Simon J. Anthony
    • , Aiah Gbakima
    • , Brian H. Bird
    • , James Bangura
    • , Alexandre Tremeau-Bravard
    • , Manjunatha N. Belaganahalli
    • , Heather L. Wells
    • , Jasjeet K. Dhanota
    • , Eliza Liang
    • , Michael Grodus
    • , Rohit K. Jangra
    • , Veronica A. DeJesus
    • , Gorka Lasso
    • , Brett R. Smith
    • , Amara Jambai
    • , Brima O. Kamara
    • , Sorie Kamara
    • , William Bangura
    • , Corina Monagin
    • , Sagi Shapira
    • , Christine K. Johnson
    • , Karen Saylors
    • , Edward M. Rubin
    • , Kartik Chandran
    • , W. Ian Lipkin
    •  & Jonna A. K. Mazet
  • Article |

    The characterization of the type IV CRISPR system from Aromatoleum aromaticum shows that Csf2 serves as a backbone to which Csf5, Csf3 and Csf1 bind to form CRISPR–ribonucleoprotein complexes. Csf5 (a Cas6 variant) generates CRISPR RNAs with short, 7 nucleotide 5′-repeat tags and stable 3′ hairpin structures.

    • Ahsen Özcan
    • , Patrick Pausch
    • , Andreas Linden
    • , Alexander Wulf
    • , Karola Schühle
    • , Johann Heider
    • , Henning Urlaub
    • , Thomas Heimerl
    • , Gert Bange
    •  & Lennart Randau
  • Letter |

    Chlamydia trachomatis DUB1 uses a single catalytic centre to carry out dual lysine deubiquitinase and acetyltransferase activity. Deubiquitination is required for Golgi fragmentation during bacterial infection.

    • Jonathan N. Pruneda
    • , Robert J. Bastidas
    • , Erithelgi Bertsoulaki
    • , Kirby N. Swatek
    • , Balaji Santhanam
    • , Michael J. Clague
    • , Raphael H. Valdivia
    • , Sylvie Urbé
    •  & David Komander
  • Article |

    Structures of three enterovirus D68 capsid states and two monoclonal antibodies provide a molecular explanation for the transition of picornavirus capsid conformations and reveal distinct mechanisms for viral neutralization.

    • Qingbing Zheng
    • , Rui Zhu
    • , Longfa Xu
    • , Maozhou He
    • , Xiaodong Yan
    • , Dongxiao Liu
    • , Zhichao Yin
    • , Yangtao Wu
    • , Yongchao Li
    • , Lisheng Yang
    • , Wangheng Hou
    • , Shuxuan Li
    • , Zizhen Li
    • , Zhenqin Chen
    • , Zhihai Li
    • , Hai Yu
    • , Ying Gu
    • , Jun Zhang
    • , Timothy S. Baker
    • , Z. Hong Zhou
    • , Barney S. Graham
    • , Tong Cheng
    • , Shaowei Li
    •  & Ningshao Xia
  • Article |

    Roseburia intestinalis is a butyrate-producing member of the gut microbiome that can use dietary plant polysaccharides to alter host metabolism, transcription and epigenetics, and lower inflammation and endotoxaemia, resulting in reduced atherosclerosis.

    • Kazuyuki Kasahara
    • , Kimberly A. Krautkramer
    • , Elin Org
    • , Kymberleigh A. Romano
    • , Robert L. Kerby
    • , Eugenio I. Vivas
    • , Margarete Mehrabian
    • , John M. Denu
    • , Fredrik Bäckhed
    • , Aldons J. Lusis
    •  & Federico E. Rey
  • Article |

    Faecal carbon:nitrogen measurements and manipulation of nitrogen availability via diet and host secretions in a murine model suggest that intestinal nitrogen limitation occurs due to host absorption and microbial use, leading to benefits for specific taxa.

    • Aspen T. Reese
    • , Fátima C. Pereira
    • , Arno Schintlmeister
    • , David Berry
    • , Michael Wagner
    • , Laura P. Hale
    • , Anchi Wu
    • , Sharon Jiang
    • , Heather K. Durand
    • , Xiyou Zhou
    • , Richard T. Premont
    • , Anna Mae Diehl
    • , Thomas M. O’Connell
    • , Susan C. Alberts
    • , Tyler R. Kartzinel
    • , Robert M. Pringle
    • , Robert R. Dunn
    • , Justin P. Wright
    •  & Lawrence A. David
  • Letter |

    Although essential to restrict systemic replication, the small interfering RNA pathway fails to efficiently silence dengue virus in the midgut of Aedes aegypti in the absence of ectopic expression of the double-stranded RNA-binding protein Loqs2.

    • Roenick P. Olmo
    • , Alvaro G. A. Ferreira
    • , Tatiane C. Izidoro-Toledo
    • , Eric R. G. R. Aguiar
    • , Isaque J. S. de Faria
    • , Kátia P. R. de Souza
    • , Kátia P. Osório
    • , Lauriane Kuhn
    • , Philippe Hammann
    • , Elisa G. de Andrade
    • , Yaovi Mathias Todjro
    • , Marcele N. Rocha
    • , Thiago H. J. F. Leite
    • , Siad C. G. Amadou
    • , Juliana N. Armache
    • , Simona Paro
    • , Caroline D. de Oliveira
    • , Fabiano D. Carvalho
    • , Luciano A. Moreira
    • , Eric Marois
    • , Jean-Luc Imler
    •  & João T. Marques
  • News & Views |

    Protein translocation across bacterial membranes can take many routes through dedicated transport machines. A new study finds that Salmonella Typhi utilizes a distinct pathway to translocate typhoid toxin across the peptidoglycan layer and prime the bacterium for host intoxication.

    • Anastassios Economou
  • News & Views |

    A key step of the antiviral immune response is detection of the viral intruder. Infection with highly pathogenic strains of influenza virus is now shown to produce short aberrant viral RNAs that potently trigger activation of innate immunity.

    • William Riedl
    •  & Michaela U. Gack
  • News & Views |

    A powerful in vivo biotinylation approach identifies TagA as a binding partner of TssA, a central regulator of the assembly of the type VI secretion system (T6SS). TagA terminates assembly of the T6SS tail and tethers it to the membrane, acting as a crossbow latch that allows for efficient firing.

    • Olivera Francetic
  • Editorial |

    Access to toilets and basic sanitation systems revolutionized living environments and reduced the burden from diarrhoeal diseases in the developed world. With more than half of the global population still living without access to a household toilet, the need to tackle this feculent problem requires greater prominence.

  • News & Views |

    The discovery of CD153 as a novel driver of T-cell-mediated host defence against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection advances our understanding of the requirements for protective immunity. Future investigation of CD153 as a potential correlate of tuberculosis immunity could open new avenues for vaccine design.

    • Sara B. Cohen
    •  & Kevin B. Urdahl
  • Article | | open

    A combination of proteomics, metagenome-assembled genomes and heterologous gene expression experiments reveals a trophic system for carbon utilization in the moose rumen microbiome and provides insights into phage dynamics in this ecosystem.

    • Lindsey M. Solden
    • , Adrian E. Naas
    • , Simon Roux
    • , Rebecca A. Daly
    • , William B. Collins
    • , Carrie D. Nicora
    • , Sam O. Purvine
    • , David W. Hoyt
    • , Julia Schückel
    • , Bodil Jørgensen
    • , William Willats
    • , Donald E. Spalinger
    • , Jeffrey L. Firkins
    • , Mary S. Lipton
    • , Matthew B. Sullivan
    • , Phillip B. Pope
    •  & Kelly C. Wrighton
  • Article |

    Here the authors show that the human gut microbiome can recover after a clinically relevant, broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment and characterization of the resistome indicates that antibiotic resistance genes can impact the recovery process.

    • Albert Palleja
    • , Kristian H. Mikkelsen
    • , Sofia K. Forslund
    • , Alireza Kashani
    • , Kristine H. Allin
    • , Trine Nielsen
    • , Tue H. Hansen
    • , Suisha Liang
    • , Qiang Feng
    • , Chenchen Zhang
    • , Paul Theodor Pyl
    • , Luis Pedro Coelho
    • , Huanming Yang
    • , Jian Wang
    • , Athanasios Typas
    • , Morten F. Nielsen
    • , Henrik Bjorn Nielsen
    • , Peer Bork
    • , Jun Wang
    • , Tina Vilsbøll
    • , Torben Hansen
    • , Filip K. Knop
    • , Manimozhiyan Arumugam
    •  & Oluf Pedersen
  • Letter |

    In a rodent malaria model, antibodies against the CSP protein that coats sporozoites lead to Plasmodium yoelii killing in the skin in a process that involves stripping off the CSP coat, rendering parasites susceptible to pore-forming-like proteins.

    • Eduardo Aliprandini
    • , Joana Tavares
    • , Raquel Hoffmann Panatieri
    • , Sabine Thiberge
    • , Marcio Massao Yamamoto
    • , Olivier Silvie
    • , Tomoko Ishino
    • , Masao Yuda
    • , Sylvie Dartevelle
    • , François Traincard
    • , Silvia Beatriz Boscardin
    •  & Rogerio Amino
  • Article |

    Here the authors characterize two polysaccharide utilization loci and provide a model for arabinogalactan degradation by Bacteroides species in the gut microbiome, and show that the cellular location of specific enzymes determines keystone activity.

    • Alan Cartmell
    • , Jose Muñoz-Muñoz
    • , Jonathon A. Briggs
    • , Didier A. Ndeh
    • , Elisabeth C. Lowe
    • , Arnaud Baslé
    • , Nicolas Terrapon
    • , Katherine Stott
    • , Tiaan Heunis
    • , Joe Gray
    • , Li Yu
    • , Paul Dupree
    • , Pearl Z. Fernandes
    • , Sayali Shah
    • , Spencer J. Williams
    • , Aurore Labourel
    • , Matthias Trost
    • , Bernard Henrissat
    •  & Harry J. Gilbert
  • Article |

    A combination of cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and targeted mutagenesis studies elucidates the structure and organization of the core complex of the type IV secretion system used by Xanthomonas citri to kill competing bacteria.

    • Germán G. Sgro
    • , Tiago R. D. Costa
    • , William Cenens
    • , Diorge P. Souza
    • , Alexandre Cassago
    • , Luciana Coutinho de Oliveira
    • , Roberto K. Salinas
    • , Rodrigo V. Portugal
    • , Chuck S. Farah
    •  & Gabriel Waksman
  • Publisher Correction |

    • Nicole C. Howard
    • , Nancy D. Marin
    • , Mushtaq Ahmed
    • , Bruce A. Rosa
    • , John Martin
    • , Monika Bambouskova
    • , Alexey Sergushichev
    • , Ekaterina Loginicheva
    • , Natalia Kurepina
    • , Javier Rangel-Moreno
    • , Liang Chen
    • , Barry N. Kreiswirth
    • , Robyn S. Klein
    • , Joan-Miquel Balada-Llasat
    • , Jordi B. Torrelles
    • , Gaya K. Amarasinghe
    • , Makedonka Mitreva
    • , Maxim N. Artyomov
    • , Fong-Fu Hsu
    • , Barun Mathema
    •  & Shabaana A. Khader
  • Letter |

    The effects of multidrug antimicrobial combinations follow a null model in which inhibitory effects are additive and where drug dosage is orthogonal, leading to a square-root scaling of potency with the number of drugs.

    • D. Russ
    •  & R. Kishony
  • Article |

    The phage phi3T peptide SAIRGA directs the lysis–lysogeny decision by modulating conformational changes in phAimR, whereas the SPbeta peptide GMPRGA regulates the lysis–lysogeny pathway by stabilizing spAimR in the dimeric state.

    • Chao Dou
    • , Jie Xiong
    • , Yijun Gu
    • , Kun Yin
    • , Jinjing Wang
    • , Yuehong Hu
    • , Dan Zhou
    • , Xianghui Fu
    • , Shiqian Qi
    • , Xiaofeng Zhu
    • , Shaohua Yao
    • , Heng Xu
    • , Chunlai Nie
    • , Zongan Liang
    • , Shengyong Yang
    • , Yuquan Wei
    •  & Wei Cheng
  • Article |

    The cryo-EM structure of the TssKFGE baseplate wedge complex of the type VI secretion system (T6SS) from enteroaggregative Escherichia coli helps to elucidate the molecular architecture of the whole T6SS baseplate, and its assembly and mode of action.

    • Yassine Cherrak
    • , Chiara Rapisarda
    • , Riccardo Pellarin
    • , Guillaume Bouvier
    • , Benjamin Bardiaux
    • , Fabrice Allain
    • , Christian Malosse
    • , Martial Rey
    • , Julia Chamot-Rooke
    • , Eric Cascales
    • , Rémi Fronzes
    •  & Eric Durand
  • Article |

    Bacillus subtilis mutants lacking either of the biofilm extracellular matrix components, exopolysaccharide or the fibre protein TasA, can evolve compensatory mutations that act on the residual matrix component to restore biofilm formation.

    • Anna Dragoš
    • , Marivic Martin
    • , Carolina Falcón Garcia
    • , Lara Kricks
    • , Patrick Pausch
    • , Thomas Heimerl
    • , Balázs Bálint
    • , Gergely Maróti
    • , Gert Bange
    • , Daniel López
    • , Oliver Lieleg
    •  & Ákos T. Kovács
  • Article | | open

    Single-cell genome sequencing of eight uncultured fungal species provides insights into the phylogenetic placement of early-diverging lineages, highlights metabolic deficiencies and identifies gene expansions correlated with parasitism and unculturability.

    • Steven R. Ahrendt
    • , C. Alisha Quandt
    • , Doina Ciobanu
    • , Alicia Clum
    • , Asaf Salamov
    • , Bill Andreopoulos
    • , Jan-Fang Cheng
    • , Tanja Woyke
    • , Adrian Pelin
    • , Bernard Henrissat
    • , Nicole K. Reynolds
    • , Gerald L. Benny
    • , Matthew E. Smith
    • , Timothy Y. James
    •  & Igor V. Grigoriev
  • Article |

    The adaptation of APEX2-dependent proximity biotinylation for use in bacteria enables the identification of binding partners of TssA, which controls T6SS sheath assembly. This approach identifies TagA as a TssA partner that stops sheath polymerization and clamps the extended sheath to the membrane.

    • Yoann G. Santin
    • , Thierry Doan
    • , Régine Lebrun
    • , Leon Espinosa
    • , Laure Journet
    •  & Eric Cascales
  • Editorial |

    Without greater attention being paid to the work–life balance of academic researchers, effects on creativity, productivity, interpersonal relationships and mental health will continue to grow, increasing the risk of burnout.

  • News & Views |

    Components of the sphingolipid biosynthetic pathway induce a favourable conformation in the proteinaceous murine norovirus receptor (CD300lf) that facilitates virus entry.

    • Benhur Lee
  • News & Views |

    How the immune system handles the relentless presence of commensal bacteria is an area of great interest. Here, researchers describe a role for autophagy in mediating tolerance to the microbiota, the absence of which can impart beneficial resistance to infection but also possible detriment in the form of autoimmunity.

    • Jennifer Martinez
  • News & Views |

    The H445Y mutation in the β-subunit of RNA polymerase in Mycobacterium tuberculosis causes resistance to the antibiotic rifampicin and changes mycobacterial lipid composition. Infection with rpoB H445Y results in metabolic shifts that allow the bacteria to bypass a key host inflammatory response.

    • Yu-Xiang Chen
    •  & Babak Javid
  • Article |

    Using millimetre-scale replicate granules from an enhanced biological phosphorus removal reactor, the authors observe strain-level variability providing insights into the intrinsic drivers of microbial assembly at relevant spatial scales.

    • Gabriel E. Leventhal
    • , Carles Boix
    • , Urs Kuechler
    • , Tim N. Enke
    • , Elzbieta Sliwerska
    • , Christof Holliger
    •  & Otto X. Cordero
  • Letter |

    A prevalent rifampicin resistance mutation in Mycobacterium tuberculosis alters bacterial virulence lipid expression and enables bypasses of a host immune axis that is critical for the control of drug-susceptible infections.

    • Nicole C. Howard
    • , Nancy D. Marin
    • , Mushtaq Ahmed
    • , Bruce A. Rosa
    • , John Martin
    • , Monika Bambouskova
    • , Alexey Sergushichev
    • , Ekaterina Loginicheva
    • , Natalia Kurepina
    • , Javier Rangel-Moreno
    • , Liang Chen
    • , Barry N. Kreiswirth
    • , Robyn S. Klein
    • , Joan-Miquel Balada-Llasat
    • , Jordi B. Torrelles
    • , Gaya K. Amarasinghe
    • , Makedonka Mitreva
    • , Maxim N. Artyomov
    • , Fong-Fu Hsu
    • , Barun Mathema
    •  & Shabaana A. Khader
  • Letter |

    Aberrant mini viral RNAs, which are produced by erroneous RNA polymerase activity during the replication of the viral RNA genome, act as the main agonists of RIG-I during influenza virus infection.

    • Aartjan J. W. te Velthuis
    • , Joshua C. Long
    • , David L. V. Bauer
    • , Rebecca L. Y. Fan
    • , Hui-Ling Yen
    • , Jane Sharps
    • , Jurre Y. Siegers
    • , Marian J. Killip
    • , Hollie French
    • , Maria José Oliva-Martín
    • , Richard E. Randall
    • , Emmie de Wit
    • , Debby van Riel
    • , Leo L. M. Poon
    •  & Ervin Fodor
  • Letter |

    Flavivirus replication at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is targeted by the interferon response through blocking of the formation of virus-induced ER membrane invaginations by the interferon-stimulated gene IFI6, encoding an ER-localized integral membrane effector.

    • R. Blake Richardson
    • , Maikke B. Ohlson
    • , Jennifer L. Eitson
    • , Ashwani Kumar
    • , Matthew B. McDougal
    • , Ian N. Boys
    • , Katrina B. Mar
    • , Pamela C. De La Cruz-Rivera
    • , Connor Douglas
    • , Genevieve Konopka
    • , Chao Xing
    •  & John W. Schoggins
  • Article |

    Autophagy-deficient murine hosts are protected from infection and injury at the intestinal barrier and this is driven by a microbiota-dependent type I interferon response, indicating that autophagy is important for limiting host responses to the microbiota.

    • Patricia K. Martin
    • , Amanda Marchiando
    • , Ruliang Xu
    • , Eugene Rudensky
    • , Frank Yeung
    • , Samantha L. Schuster
    • , Elisabeth Kernbauer
    •  & Ken Cadwell
  • Article |

    Male offspring of pregnant mice infected with a low dose of Zika virus infection have increased testosterone levels, an increased number of immature neurons in apical hippocampal dendrites and are less likely to survive in utero infection than female littermates.

    • Stephanie Stanelle-Bertram
    • , Kerstin Walendy-Gnirß
    • , Thomas Speiseder
    • , Swantje Thiele
    • , Ivy Asantewaa Asante
    • , Carola Dreier
    • , Nancy Mounogou Kouassi
    • , Annette Preuß
    • , Gundula Pilnitz-Stolze
    • , Ursula Müller
    • , Stefanie Thanisch
    • , Melanie Richter
    • , Robin Scharrenberg
    • , Vanessa Kraus
    • , Ronja Dörk
    • , Lynn Schau
    • , Vanessa Herder
    • , Ingo Gerhauser
    • , Vanessa Maria Pfankuche
    • , Christopher Käufer
    • , Inken Waltl
    • , Thais Moraes
    • , Julie Sellau
    • , Stefan Hoenow
    • , Jonas Schmidt-Chanasit
    • , Stephanie Jansen
    • , Benjamin Schattling
    • , Harald Ittrich
    • , Udo Bartsch
    • , Thomas Renné
    • , Ralf Bartenschlager
    • , Petra Arck
    • , Daniel Cadar
    • , Manuel A. Friese
    • , Olli Vapalahti
    • , Hanna Lotter
    • , Sany Benites
    • , Lane Rolling
    • , Martin Gabriel
    • , Wolfgang Baumgärtner
    • , Fabio Morellini
    • , Sabine M. Hölter
    • , Oana Amarie
    • , Helmut Fuchs
    • , Martin Hrabe de Angelis
    • , Wolfgang Löscher
    • , Froylan Calderon de Anda
    •  & Gülsah Gabriel
  • Letter |

    CD153 expression by CD4 T cells is required for control of pulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.

    • Michelle A. Sallin
    • , Keith D. Kauffman
    • , Catherine Riou
    • , Elsa Du Bruyn
    • , Taylor W. Foreman
    • , Shunsuke Sakai
    • , Stella G. Hoft
    • , Timothy G. Myers
    • , Paul J. Gardina
    • , Alan Sher
    • , Rashida Moore
    • , Temeri Wilder-Kofie
    • , Ian N. Moore
    • , Alessandro Sette
    • , Cecilia S. Lindestam Arlehamn
    • , Robert J. Wilkinson
    •  & Daniel L. Barber
  • Letter |

    The conditional overexpression of the transcription factor AP2-G in Plasmodium berghei enables the large-scale conversion of parasite populations into gametocytes, facilitating analysis of the sexual commitment stage of the parasite life cycle.

    • Robyn S. Kent
    • , Katarzyna K. Modrzynska
    • , Rachael Cameron
    • , Nisha Philip
    • , Oliver Billker
    •  & Andrew P. Waters