Nature 456, 636-638 (4 December 2008) | doi:10.1038/nature07339; Received 12 June 2008; Accepted 14 August 2008; Published online 21 September 2008

The pectoral fin of Panderichthys and the origin of digits

Catherine A. Boisvert1, Elga Mark-Kurik2 & Per E. Ahlberg1

  1. Subdepartment of Evolutionary Organismal Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University, Norbyvägen 18A, 752 36 Uppsala, Sweden
  2. Institute of Geology at Tallinn University of Technology, Ehitajate tee 5, 19086 Tallinn, Estonia

Correspondence to: Catherine A. Boisvert1 Correspondence and requests for materials should be addressed to C.A.B. (Email: catherine.boisvert@ebc.uu.se).

One of the identifying characteristics of tetrapods (limbed vertebrates) is the presence of fingers and toes. Whereas the proximal part of the tetrapod limb skeleton can easily be homologized with the paired fin skeletons of sarcopterygian (lobe-finned) fish, there has been much debate about the origin of digits. Early hypotheses1 interpreted digits as derivatives of fin radials, but during the 1990s the idea gained acceptance that digits are evolutionary novelties without direct equivalents in fish fin skeletons. This was partly based on developmental genetic data2, but also substantially on the pectoral fin skeleton of the elpistostegid (transitional fish/tetrapod) Panderichthys, which appeared to lack distal digit-like radials3. Here we present a CT scan study of an undisturbed pectoral fin of Panderichthys demonstrating that the plate-like 'ulnare' of previous reconstructions is an artefact and that distal radials are in fact present. This distal portion is more tetrapod-like than that found in Tiktaalik 4 and, in combination with new data about fin development in basal actinopterygians5, sharks6 and lungfish7, makes a strong case for fingers not being a novelty of tetrapods but derived from pre-existing distal radials present in all sarcopterygian fish.


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