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Editorials

A question of balance p565

The turmoil in the financial markets could lead to severe cost-cutting by governments, but US politicians would do well to note the benefits of continued support for clean energy and climate policies.

doi:10.1038/455565a


Life after Zerhouni p565

The next NIH director must juggle stagnant budgets, unhappy grantees and investigative lawmakers.

doi:10.1038/455565b


An end to secrecy p566

China's continuing openness on HIV is a welcome development and a model for other nations.

doi:10.1038/455566a

See also: Editor's summary


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Research Highlights

Evolution: Vampire genes p568

doi:10.1038/455568a


Geosciences: Carbon crunch p568

doi:10.1038/455568b


Ecology: Diatoms downsize p568

doi:10.1038/455568c


Cancer biology: Ensuring a welcome p568

doi:10.1038/455568d


Geology: Primitive petrous p568

doi:10.1038/455568e


Mechanics: Slippery when clean p568

doi:10.1038/455568f


Planetary science: Mars lander p569

doi:10.1038/455569a


Atmospheric chemistry: A chemical equator p569

doi:10.1038/455569b


Theoretical physics: Computing with rainbows p569

doi:10.1038/455569c


Chemistry: Biofuel acid test p569

doi:10.1038/455569d


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Journal Club

Journal club p569

Roger Buick

doi:10.1038/455569e


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News

NIH soon to be leaderless p570

Experts speculate about who will take charge when Zerhouni leaves.

Meredith Wadman

doi:10.1038/455570a


Hwang work granted patent p571

Australia criticized for issuing a patent for a method the Korean lied about using.

David Cyranoski

doi:10.1038/455571a


Fears surface over methane leaks p572

Experts work to confirm source of gas bubbling from Arctic seabed.

Quirin Schiermeier

doi:10.1038/455572a


Credit crunch threatens US wind-energy projects p572

Tax incentives mean nothing if companies don't make enough profit.

Jeff Tollefson

doi:10.1038/455572b


Ancient water sites for next rover p575

Planetary scientists shortlist top landing sites on Mars.

Eric Hand

doi:10.1038/455575a


Teams merge for dark-energy mission p577

Competition scrapped in favour of joint venture.

Eric Hand

doi:10.1038/455577a


Snapshot: How do you like your coffee? p579

Katharine Sanderson

doi:10.1038/455579a


World nuclear security gets welcome boost p580

doi:10.1038/455580a


South Africa replaces its health minister p580

doi:10.1038/455580b


Falcon rocket reaches low-Earth orbit p580

doi:10.1038/455580c


Carbon dioxide emissions rise to record levels p581

doi:10.1038/455581a


US Congress approves funding bill for science p581

doi:10.1038/455581b


China's first spacewalk p581

doi:10.1038/455581c


Corrections p581

doi:10.1038/455581d


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News Features

Military research: The Pentagon's culture wars p583

What began several years ago as an attempt to recruit social scientists to help the military has sparked a broader debate about militarizing academia. Sharon Weinberger reports.

doi:10.1038/455583a


Cell therapy: Being patient p586

Cell therapies are as much about the patients as they are about the cells. Monya Baker meets two stem-cell scientists who have decided to put people first.

doi:10.1038/455586a


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Correspondence

Don't release other people's data without their consent p589

Daniel N. Frank

doi:10.1038/455589a


Further reflections on how we interpret the actions of others p589

Giacomo Rizzolatti & Corrado Sinigaglia

doi:10.1038/455589b


Austria: Academy of Sciences states its case p589

Peter Schuster & Herwig Friesinger

doi:10.1038/455589c


Science journals have been slow to make themselves audible p590

Wouter M. J. Achten

doi:10.1038/455590a


Don't forget people and specimens that make the database p590

David Campbell

doi:10.1038/455590b


Religion and science: a guide for the 'perplexed' p590

Denis R. Alexander

doi:10.1038/455590c


Religion and science: separated by an unbridgeable chasm p590

Peter Wigley

doi:10.1038/455590d


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Commentaries

HIV immunology needs a new direction p591

Researchers need to get past the standard model of vaccine development and focus on how immune responses are specifically tailored to retroviruses, argue Ruslan Medzhitov and Dan Littman.

doi:10.1038/455591a

See also: Editor's summary


UK physics gets a health check p592

The field is healthy, says Bill Wakeham, but scientists need to reclaim the intellectual ownership of research at the margins of the discipline such as medical or atmospheric physics.

doi:10.1038/455592a

See also: Editor's summary


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Books and Arts

A fluid approach to HIV p593

Karunesh Tuli reviews Unimagined Community: Sex, Networks, and AIDS in Uganda and South Africa by Robert J. Thornton

doi:10.1038/455593a


Injecting trust into vaccines p594

Jeff Thomas reviews Autism's False Prophets: Bad Science, Risky Medicine, and the Search for a Cure by Paul A. Offit

doi:10.1038/455594a


Q&A: Creations from the cosmos p595

Artist Karel Nel works with astronomers from COSMOS, the global Cosmic Evolution Survey that is mapping galaxies and dark matter. Now exhibiting his work in London, he tells Nature how his view of the Universe has changed.

Jennifer Rohn

doi:10.1038/455595a


Enhance your life with Nature debates p595

Nature has picked two panels of experts in science, policy and ethics to debate research that is improving mental and physical abilities.

doi:10.1038/455595b


Beyond the greenhouse p596

Botanic gardens are using good garden design to attract and educate the public. Mike Maunder explains how they can thrive both as businesses and as institutions of learning.

Mike Maunder

doi:10.1038/455596a


Top

Essay

Beijing 1987: China's coming-out party p598

Two decades ago, Deng Xiaoping welcomed nations to an international meeting in Beijing. Mohamed Hassan recalls how China's leaders set out their plans for the nation to rejoin the world's scientific elite.

Mohamed Hassan

doi:10.1038/455598a

See also: Editor's summary


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News and Views

Sensory ecology: In sight of speciation p601

Adaptation of a fish's eyes to its visual environment can bias females to mate with different males according to their coloration. This sensory preference can contribute to the formation of new species.

Mark Kirkpatrick & Trevor Price

doi:10.1038/455601a

See also: Editor's summary


Climate change: When did the icehouse cometh? p602

The concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide decreased between 45 million and 25 million years ago, a trend accompanied by glaciation at the poles. Modelling results suggest when and where the ice closed in.

Stephen F. Pekar

doi:10.1038/455602a

See also: Editor's summary


Regenerative medicine: Short cut to cell replacement p604

To make one differentiated cell type from another, a 'stopover' at an undifferentiated state is often required. An alternative method offering an efficient direct route could have implications for disease treatment.

Robert Blelloch

doi:10.1038/455604a

See also: Editor's summary


AIDS: Prehistory of HIV-1 p605

The origin of the current AIDS pandemic has been a subject of great interest and speculation. Viral archaeology sheds light on the geography and timescale of the early diversification of HIV-1 in humans.

Paul M. Sharp & Beatrice H. Hahn

doi:10.1038/455605a

See also: Editor's summary


Applied physics: Virtues of diamond defects p606

A general method for detecting nuclear magnetic resonance signals from a single molecule has so far been elusive. Magnetic sensors that exploit crystal imperfections in diamond might make such a method a reality.

Michael Romalis

doi:10.1038/455606a

See also: Editor's summary


Neuroscience: Fragile dopamine p607

Dopamine dysfunction, which is implicated in Parkinson's disease and drug addiction, seems an unlikely culprit in fragile X syndrome. A surprising set of findings means a rethink is required.

David Weinshenker & Stephen T. Warren

doi:10.1038/455607a


Top

Feature

The changing face of HIV in China p609

HIV has advanced from high-risk groups such as intravenous drug users to some in the general population, according to comprehensive new data from the south of China. What needs to be done to halt its spread?

Lin Lu, Manhong Jia, Yanling Ma, Li Yang, Zhiwei Chen, David D. Ho, Yan Jiang & Linqi Zhang

doi:10.1038/455609a

See also: Editor's summary


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Review

Challenges in the development of an HIV-1 vaccine p613

Dan H. Barouch

doi:10.1038/nature07352

See also: Editor's summary


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Brief Communication Arising

Photoemission kinks and phonons in cuprates pE6

D. Reznik, G. Sangiovanni, O. Gunnarsson & T. P. Devereaux

doi:10.1038/nature07364


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Articles

Speciation through sensory drive in cichlid fish p620

Ole Seehausen, Yohey Terai, Isabel S. Magalhaes, Karen L. Carleton, Hillary D. J. Mrosso, Ryutaro Miyagi, Inke van der Sluijs, Maria V. Schneider, Martine E. Maan, Hidenori Tachida, Hiroo Imai & Norihiro Okada

doi:10.1038/nature07285

See also: Editor's summary | News and Views by Kirkpatrick & Price


In vivo reprogramming of adult pancreatic exocrine cells to beta-cells p627

Qiao Zhou, Juliana Brown, Andrew Kanarek, Jayaraj Rajagopal & Douglas A. Melton

doi:10.1038/nature07314

See also: Editor's summary | News and Views by Blelloch


Structure of the Tribolium castaneum telomerase catalytic subunit TERT p633

Andrew J. Gillis, Anthony P. Schuller & Emmanuel Skordalakes

doi:10.1038/nature07283

See also: Editor's summary


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Letters

An 84-muG magnetic field in a galaxy at redshift z = 0.692 p638

Arthur M. Wolfe, Regina A. Jorgenson, Timothy Robishaw, Carl Heiles & Jason X. Prochaska

doi:10.1038/nature07264

See also: Editor's summary


Clustered star formation as a natural explanation for the Halpha cut-off in disk galaxies p641

Jan Pflamm-Altenburg & Pavel Kroupa

doi:10.1038/nature07266

See also: Editor's summary


Nanoscale magnetic sensing with an individual electronic spin in diamond p644

J. R. Maze, P. L. Stanwix, J. S. Hodges, S. Hong, J. M. Taylor, P. Cappellaro, L. Jiang, M. V. Gurudev Dutt, E. Togan, A. S. Zibrov, A. Yacoby, R. L. Walsworth & M. D. Lukin

doi:10.1038/nature07279

See also: Editor's summary | News and Views by Romalis


Nanoscale imaging magnetometry with diamond spins under ambient conditions p648

Gopalakrishnan Balasubramanian, I. Y. Chan, Roman Kolesov, Mohannad Al-Hmoud, Julia Tisler, Chang Shin, Changdong Kim, Aleksander Wojcik, Philip R. Hemmer, Anke Krueger, Tobias Hanke, Alfred Leitenstorfer, Rudolf Bratschitsch, Fedor Jelezko & Jörg Wrachtrup

doi:10.1038/nature07278

See also: Editor's summary | News and Views by Romalis


Thresholds for Cenozoic bipolar glaciation p652

Robert M. DeConto, David Pollard, Paul A. Wilson, Heiko Pälike, Caroline H. Lear & Mark Pagani

doi:10.1038/nature07337

See also: Editor's summary | News and Views by Pekar


Crystallographic preferred orientation of akimotoite and seismic anisotropy of Tonga slab p657

Rei Shiraishi, Eiji Ohtani, Kyuichi Kanagawa, Akira Shimojuku & Dapeng Zhao

doi:10.1038/nature07301

See also: Editor's summary


Direct evidence of extensive diversity of HIV-1 in Kinshasa by 1960 p661

Michael Worobey, Marlea Gemmel, Dirk E. Teuwen, Tamara Haselkorn, Kevin Kunstman, Michael Bunce, Jean-Jacques Muyembe, Jean-Marie M. Kabongo, Raphaël M. Kalengayi, Eric Van Marck, M. Thomas P. Gilbert & Steven M. Wolinsky

doi:10.1038/nature07390

See also: Editor's summary | News and Views by Sharp & Hahn


Individual differences in non-verbal number acuity correlate with maths achievement p665

Justin Halberda, Michèle M. M. Mazzocco & Lisa Feigenson

doi:10.1038/nature07246

See also: Editor's summary


UNC-6/netrin and its receptor UNC-5 locally exclude presynaptic components from dendrites p669

Vivian Y. Poon, Matthew P. Klassen & Kang Shen

doi:10.1038/nature07291

See also: Editor's summary


STING is an endoplasmic reticulum adaptor that facilitates innate immune signalling p674

Hiroki Ishikawa & Glen N. Barber

doi:10.1038/nature07317

See also: Editor's summary


Modelling Myc inhibition as a cancer therapy p679

Laura Soucek, Jonathan Whitfield, Carla P. Martins, Andrew J. Finch, Daniel J. Murphy, Nicole M. Sodir, Anthony N. Karnezis, Lamorna Brown Swigart, Sergio Nasi & Gerard I. Evan

doi:10.1038/nature07260

See also: Editor's summary


Eukaryotic initiation factor 6 is rate-limiting in translation, growth and transformation p684

Valentina Gandin, Annarita Miluzio, Anna Maria Barbieri, Anne Beugnet, Hiroaki Kiyokawa, Pier Carlo Marchisio & Stefano Biffo

doi:10.1038/nature07267

See also: Editor's summary


CDK targets Sae2 to control DNA-end resection and homologous recombination p689

Pablo Huertas, Felipe Cortés-Ledesma, Alessandro A. Sartori, Andrés Aguilera & Stephen P. Jackson

doi:10.1038/nature07215

See also: Editor's summary


Visualizing transient events in amino-terminal autoprocessing of HIV-1 protease p693

Chun Tang, John M. Louis, Annie Aniana, Jeong-Yong Suh & G. Marius Clore

doi:10.1038/nature07342

See also: Editor's summary


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Technology Features

Metabolomics: Biochemistry's new look p697

Until now, metabolomics researchers have had to adapt technology developed mainly for proteomics. But there are now solutions designed with them in mind. Nathan Blow reports.

Nathan Blow

doi:10.1038/455697a

See also: Editor's summary


Metabolomics: Dark matter p698

doi:10.1038/455698a


Metabolomics: Wine-omics p699

doi:10.1038/455699a


Metabolomics: Table of suppliers p701

doi:10.1038/455701a


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Naturejobs

Prospect

Prospects p703

A decline in the number of junior faculty members could have serious repercussions.

Paul Smaglik

doi:10.1038/nj7213-703a


Career View

Stephen Brandt, Director, Oregon Sea Grant, Corvallis, Oregon p704

Moving to tackle climate change.

Virginia Gewin

doi:10.1038/nj7213-704a


Masters of professional science p704

Defending the professional science masters.

Eleanor Babco & Carol Lynch

doi:10.1038/nj7213-704b


The coming challenge p704

My next big project.

Amanda Goh

doi:10.1038/nj7213-704c


Highlights

Highlight: Ireland

doi:10.1038/nj0229


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Futures

Mars is the wrong colour p706

No longer seeing red.

Ian Randal Strock

doi:10.1038/455706a


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