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Editorials

Community cleverness required p1

Researchers need to adapt their institutions and practices in response to torrents of new data — and need to complement smart science with smart searching.

doi:10.1038/455001a

See also: Editor's summary


Cool philosophies p2

High-energy physicists should not gloss over fundamental conundrums.

doi:10.1038/455002a


The hour of diplomacy p2

Scientific collaboration between East and West must survive the crisis in Georgia.

doi:10.1038/455002b


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Research Highlights

Cell biology: Cause of death p4

doi:10.1038/455004a


Geosciences: Clubmoss clues p4

doi:10.1038/455004b


Physics: A bolt from the blue p4

doi:10.1038/455004c


Molecular biology: Precision dumping p4

doi:10.1038/455004d


Chemistry: Silicon pulls it off p4

doi:10.1038/455004e


Immunology: Hitting 'pause' p4

doi:10.1038/455004f


Geosciences: Goodbye April showers p5

doi:10.1038/455005a


Neuroscience: Coke heads p5

doi:10.1038/455005b


Archaeology: Amazonian urbanites p5

doi:10.1038/455005c


Astrophysics: Far off fly-by p5

doi:10.1038/455005d


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Journal Club

Journal club p5

Caroline Harwood

doi:10.1038/455005e


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News

Russia's international research ties under threat p6

Responses to Russia's military action in Georgia have implications for non-proliferation, space exploration, climate negotiation and the European Union's framework programme.

doi:10.1038/455006a


Physicists aflutter about data photographed at conference p7

Digital cameras snap slides ahead of publication.

Geoff Brumfiel

doi:10.1038/455007a


Big data: The next Google p8

Ten years ago this month, Google's first employee turned up at the garage where the search engine was originally housed. What technology at a similar early stage today will have changed our world as much by 2018? Nature asked some researchers and business people to speculate — or lay out their wares. Their responses are wide ranging, but one common theme emerges: the integration of the worlds of matter and information, whether it be by the blurring of boundaries between online and real environments, touchy-feely feedback from a phone or chromosomes tucked away on databases.

doi:10.1038/455008a


Mathematical biology centre launched p11

Tennessee institute will focus on dynamics of animal disease.

John Whitfield

doi:10.1038/455011a


Republicans at odds over human embryo research p12

Stem cells divide McCain's camp.

Meredith Wadman

doi:10.1038/455012a


The energy election p12

In the first of a special series of election podcasts starting this week, Nature gathered an expert panel to discuss how energy and climate issues will play out in the US presidential election.

doi:10.1038/455012b


DNA databases shut after identities compromised p13

doi:10.1038/455013a


Bubble-fusion researcher loses misconduct appeal p13

doi:10.1038/455013b


'No pollution effects' from Chinese chemical explosion p13

doi:10.1038/455013c


Alaska's polar bears trigger lawsuit from industry p13

doi:10.1038/455013d


'YouTube for test tubes' to be listed on PubMed p13

doi:10.1038/455013e


Mars rover climbs out of crater to focus on plains p13

doi:10.1038/455013f


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Column

Big data: Data wrangling p15

Collecting and releasing environmental data have stirred up controversy in Washington, says David Goldston, and will continue to do so.

David Goldston

doi:10.1038/455015a


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News Features

Big data: Welcome to the petacentre p16

What does it take to store bytes by the tens of thousands of trillions? Cory Doctorow meets the people and machines for which it's all in a day's work.

doi:10.1038/455016a


Big data: Wikiomics p22

Pioneering biologists are trying to use wiki-type web pages to manage and interpret data, reports Mitch Waldrop. But will the wider research community go along with the experiment?

doi:10.1038/455022a


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Correspondence

Better writing and more space needed online p26

Linda Cooper

doi:10.1038/455026a


Languages: Catalan speakers learn a wider range p26

Antoni Rosell-Melé

doi:10.1038/455026b


Languages: Spain's minority-language speakers are bilingual p26

Jesús Purroy

doi:10.1038/455026c


Religion: science is partially based on faith p26

Jonathan Cowie

doi:10.1038/455026d


Vavilov's vision for genetics was among Stalin's many victims p27

Victor Fet & Michael D. Golubovsky

doi:10.1038/455027a


Message from the heavens may be that there is no message p27

Bernardo A. Huberman

doi:10.1038/455027b


Senior staff of Mexican institute speak up p27

Carlos Barajas-López & senior staff members

doi:10.1038/455027c


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Commentary

Big data: How do your data grow? p28

Scientists need to ensure that their results will be managed for the long haul. Maintaining data takes big organization, says Clifford Lynch.

doi:10.1038/455028a

See also: Editor's summary


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Books and Arts

Big data: Distilling meaning from data p30

Buried in vast streams of data are clues to new science. But we may need to craft new lenses to see them, explain Felice Frankel and Rosalind Reid.

Felice Frankel & Rosalind Reid

doi:10.1038/455030a

See also: Editor's summary


A shared digital future? p31

Will the possibilities for mass creativity on the Internet be realized or squandered, asks Tony Hey.

Tony Hey reviews The Future of the Internet: And How to Stop It by Jonathan Zittrain and Here Comes Everybody: The Power of Organizing Without Organizations by Clay Shirky and We-think: The Power of Mass Creativity by Charles Leadbeater

doi:10.1038/455031a


Virtual similarities p32

David Robson reviews Coming of Age in Second Life: An Anthropologist Explores the Virtually Human by Tom Boellstorff

doi:10.1038/455032a


Q&A: Museum's metamorphosis is nearly complete p34

On the unveiling of the second phase of the Darwin Centre at London's Natural History Museum, Anna Maria Indrio, partner at the Scandinavian architectural firm C. F. Møller, explains how the new £78 million (US$145 million) wing will reveal 20 million of the museum's insect and plant specimens to the public when it opens in September 2009.

Joanne Baker

doi:10.1038/455034a


In Retrospect: Leibniz's Protogaea p35

The first English translation of Gottfried Leibniz's earth science treatise records the difficulties of understanding our planet before geologists appreciated deep time, Richard Fortey discovers.

Richard Fortey reviews Protogaea by Gottfreid Wilhelm Leibniz

doi:10.1038/455035a


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Essay

Big data: The Harvard computers p36

The first mass data crunchers were people, not machines. Sue Nelson looks at the discoveries and legacy of the remarkable women of Harvard's Observatory.

Sue Nelson

doi:10.1038/455036a

See also: Editor's summary


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News and Views

Astrophysics: Bringing black holes into focus p39

Do black holes exist? Observations at the finest resolution so far indicate that only gross deviations in the behaviour of gravity from that predicted by general relativity can invalidate the case that they do.

Christopher S. Reynolds

doi:10.1038/455039a

See also: Editor's summary


Immunology: Oxysterols hold T cells in check p40

The oxysterol-dependent gene transcription factor LXRbeta restricts premature expansion of T cells by limiting cellular cholesterol levels. This pathway might be a pharmacological target for regulating immune responses.

Christopher K. Glass & Kaoru Saijo

doi:10.1038/455040a


Experimental physics: A shift in spectroscopy p41

Spectroscopic measurement of the energy absorbed or emitted by an object is an invaluable experimental technique. An innovative approach opens the door to the acquisition of previously inaccessible data.

Frank K. Wilhelm

doi:10.1038/455041a

See also: Editor's summary


Medical imaging: Less is more p43

The magnetic resonance imagers used in medicine fill rooms with their large-field magnets. But developments in ultra-low-field devices may give the doctor of tomorrow a more portable version.

Klaas P. Pruessmann

doi:10.1038/455043a


Small RNAs: The seeds of silence p44

Individual microRNA sequences can suppress the production of hundreds of proteins. Reduction of protein levels in this way is often modest, however, and many such RNAs probably collectively fine-tune gene expression.

Zissimos Mourelatos

doi:10.1038/455044a

See also: Editor's summary


Obituary: Victor Almon McKusick (1921–2008) p46

Quiet revolutionary in genetic medicine.

Aravinda Chakravarti

doi:10.1038/455046a


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Feature

Big data: The future of biocuration p47

To thrive, the field that links biologists and their data urgently needs structure, recognition and support.

Doug Howe, Maria Costanzo, Petra Fey, Takashi Gojobori, Linda Hannick, Winston Hide, David P. Hill, Renate Kania, Mary Schaeffer, Susan St Pierre, Simon Twigger, Owen White & Seung Yon Rhee

doi:10.1038/455047a

See also: Editor's summary


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Articles

Amplitude spectroscopy of a solid-state artificial atom p51

David M. Berns, Mark S. Rudner, Sergio O. Valenzuela, Karl K. Berggren, William D. Oliver, Leonid S. Levitov & Terry P. Orlando

doi:10.1038/nature07262

See also: Editor's summary | News and Views by Wilhelm


Widespread changes in protein synthesis induced by microRNAs p58

Matthias Selbach, Björn Schwanhäusser, Nadine Thierfelder, Zhuo Fang, Raya Khanin & Nikolaus Rajewsky

doi:10.1038/nature07228

See also: Editor's summary | News and Views by Mourelatos


The impact of microRNAs on protein output p64

Daehyun Baek, Judit Villén, Chanseok Shin, Fernando D. Camargo, Steven P. Gygi & David P. Bartel

doi:10.1038/nature07242

See also: Editor's summary | News and Views by Mourelatos


Type IV collagens regulate BMP signalling in Drosophila p72

Xiaomeng Wang, Robin E. Harris, Laura J. Bayston & Hilary L. Ashe

doi:10.1038/nature07214

See also: Editor's summary


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Letters

Event-horizon-scale structure in the supermassive black hole candidate at the Galactic Centre p78

Sheperd S. Doeleman, Jonathan Weintroub, Alan E. E. Rogers, Richard Plambeck, Robert Freund, Remo P. J. Tilanus, Per Friberg, Lucy M. Ziurys, James M. Moran, Brian Corey, Ken H. Young, Daniel L. Smythe, Michael Titus, Daniel P. Marrone, Roger J. Cappallo, Douglas C.-J. Bock, Geoffrey C. Bower, Richard Chamberlin, Gary R. Davis, Thomas P. Krichbaum, James Lamb, Holly Maness, Arthur E. Niell, Alan Roy, Peter Strittmatter, Daniel Werthimer, Alan R. Whitney & David Woody

doi:10.1038/nature07245

See also: Editor's summary | News and Views by Reynolds


Electronic structure of the iron-based superconductor LaOFeP p81

D. H. Lu, M. Yi, S.-K. Mo, A. S. Erickson, J. Analytis, J.-H. Chu, D. J. Singh, Z. Hussain, T. H. Geballe, I. R. Fisher & Z.-X. Shen

doi:10.1038/nature07263

See also: Editor's summary


Nanoscale double emulsions stabilized by single-component block copolypeptides p85

Jarrod A. Hanson, Connie B. Chang, Sara M. Graves, Zhibo Li, Thomas G. Mason & Timothy J. Deming

doi:10.1038/nature07197

See also: Editor's summary


Interaction between liquid water and hydroxide revealed by core-hole de-excitation p89

Emad F. Aziz, Niklas Ottosson, Manfred Faubel, Ingolf V. Hertel & Bernd Winter

doi:10.1038/nature07252

See also: Editor's summary


The increasing intensity of the strongest tropical cyclones p92

James B. Elsner, James P. Kossin & Thomas H. Jagger

doi:10.1038/nature07234

See also: Editor's summary


Multimodal warning signals for a multiple predator world p96

John M. Ratcliffe & Marie L. Nydam

doi:10.1038/nature07087

See also: Editor's summary


The virophage as a unique parasite of the giant mimivirus p100

Bernard La Scola, Christelle Desnues, Isabelle Pagnier, Catherine Robert, Lina Barrassi, Ghislain Fournous, Michèle Merchat, Marie Suzan-Monti, Patrick Forterre, Eugene Koonin & Didier Raoult

doi:10.1038/nature07218

See also: Editor's summary


Single-nucleotide mutation rate increases close to insertions/deletions in eukaryotes p105

Dacheng Tian, Qiang Wang, Pengfei Zhang, Hitoshi Araki, Sihai Yang, Martin Kreitman, Thomas Nagylaki, Richard Hudson, Joy Bergelson & Jian-Qun Chen

doi:10.1038/nature07175

See also: Editor's summary


Molecular architecture of native HIV-1 gp120 trimers p109

Jun Liu, Alberto Bartesaghi, Mario J. Borgnia, Guillermo Sapiro & Sriram Subramaniam

doi:10.1038/nature07159

See also: Editor's summary


Neurogenin 2 controls cortical neuron migration through regulation of Rnd2 p114

Julian Ik-Tsen Heng, Laurent Nguyen, Diogo S. Castro, Céline Zimmer, Hendrik Wildner, Olivier Armant, Dorota Skowronska-Krawczyk, Francesco Bedogni, Jean-Marc Matter, Robert Hevner & François Guillemot

doi:10.1038/nature07198

See also: Editor's summary


Polo-like kinase-1 is activated by aurora A to promote checkpoint recovery p119

Libor Macu ringrek, Arne Lindqvist, Dan Lim, Michael A. Lampson, Rob Klompmaker, Raimundo Freire, Christophe Clouin, Stephen S. Taylor, Michael B. Yaffe & René H. Medema

doi:10.1038/nature07185

See also: Editor's summary


Structure of Epac2 in complex with a cyclic AMP analogue and RAP1B p124

Holger Rehmann, Ernesto Arias-Palomo, Michael A. Hadders, Frank Schwede, Oscar Llorca & Johannes L. Bos

doi:10.1038/nature07187

See also: Editor's summary


Direct observation of the mechanochemical coupling in myosin Va during processive movement p128

Takeshi Sakamoto, Martin R. Webb, Eva Forgacs, Howard D. White & James R. Sellers

doi:10.1038/nature07188

See also: Editor's summary


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Naturejobs

Prospect

Prospects p133

Online professor ratings provoke outrage but garner some support.

Gene Russo

doi:10.1038/nj7209-133a


Career View

Edward Seidel, director, Office of Cyberinfrastructure, National Science Foundation, Arlington, Virginia p134

From dreams of space to designs on cyberinfrastructure.

Maria Rossbauer

doi:10.1038/nj7209-134a


Boosting Brazilian bioenergy p134

Brazil strives to remain among the world's biofuels leaders.

Virginia Gewin

doi:10.1038/nj7209-134b


Diagnosing mysteries p134

A trip to the hospital made me forget my research - and then realize its limitations.

Zachary Lippman

doi:10.1038/nj7209-134c


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Futures

Gigatech p136

Testing, testing ...

David Langford

doi:10.1038/455136a


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