Nature 451, 42-45 (3 January 2008) | doi:10.1038/nature06433; Received 27 June 2007; Accepted 29 October 2007

Magnetic monopoles in spin ice

C. Castelnovo1, R. Moessner1,2 & S. L. Sondhi3

  1. Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, Oxford University, Oxford OX1 3NP, UK
  2. Max-Planck-Institut für Physik komplexer Systeme, 01187 Dresden, Germany
  3. PCTP and Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544, USA

Correspondence to: C. Castelnovo1 Correspondence and requests for materials should be addressed to C.C. (Email: castel@physics.ox.ac.uk).

Electrically charged particles, such as the electron, are ubiquitous. In contrast, no elementary particles with a net magnetic charge have ever been observed, despite intensive and prolonged searches (see ref. 1 for example). We pursue an alternative strategy, namely that of realizing them not as elementary but rather as emergent particles—that is, as manifestations of the correlations present in a strongly interacting many-body system. The most prominent examples of emergent quasiparticles are the ones with fractional electric charge e/3 in quantum Hall physics2. Here we propose that magnetic monopoles emerge in a class of exotic magnets known collectively as spin ice3, 4, 5: the dipole moment of the underlying electronic degrees of freedom fractionalises into monopoles. This would account for a mysterious phase transition observed experimentally in spin ice in a magnetic field6, 7, which is a liquid–gas transition of the magnetic monopoles. These monopoles can also be detected by other means, for example, in an experiment modelled after the Stanford magnetic monopole search8.