Letter

Nature 449, 463-467 (27 September 2007) | doi:10.1038/nature06148; Received 5 April 2007; Accepted 7 August 2007; Published online 26 August 2007

The grapevine genome sequence suggests ancestral hexaploidization in major angiosperm phyla

Olivier Jaillon1,18, Jean-Marc Aury1,18, Benjamin Noel1, Alberto Policriti2,3, Christian Clepet4, Alberto Casagrande2,5, Nathalie Choisne1,4, Sébastien Aubourg4, Nicola Vitulo6,15, Claire Jubin1, Alessandro Vezzi6,15, Fabrice Legeai7, Philippe Hugueney8, Corinne Dasilva1, David Horner9,15, Erica Mica9,15, Delphine Jublot4, Julie Poulain1, Clémence Bruyère4, Alain Billault1, Béatrice Segurens1, Michel Gouyvenoux1, Edgardo Ugarte1, Federica Cattonaro2, Véronique Anthouard1, Virginie Vico1, Cristian Del Fabbro2,3, Michaël Alaux7, Gabriele Di Gaspero2,5, Vincent Dumas8, Nicoletta Felice2,5, Sophie Paillard4, Irena Juman2,5, Marco Moroldo4, Simone Scalabrin2,3, Aurélie Canaguier4, Isabelle Le Clainche4, Giorgio Malacrida6,15, Eléonore Durand7, Graziano Pesole10,11,15, Valérie Laucou12, Philippe Chatelet13, Didier Merdinoglu8, Massimo Delledonne14,15, Mario Pezzotti15,16, Alain Lecharny4, Claude Scarpelli1, François Artiguenave1, M. Enrico Pè9,15, Giorgio Valle6,15, Michele Morgante2,15, Michel Caboche4, Anne-Françoise Adam-Blondon4, Jean Weissenbach1, Francis Quétier1 & Patrick Wincker1 for The French–Italian Public Consortium for Grapevine Genome Characterization 17

  1. Genoscope (CEA) and UMR 8030 CNRS-Genoscope-Université d'Evry, 2 rue Gaston Crémieux, BP5706, 91057 Evry, France.
  2. Istituto di Genomica Applicata, Parco Scientifico e Tecnologico di Udine, Via Linussio 51, 33100 Udine, Italy.
  3. Dipartimento di Matematica ed Informatica, Università degli Studi di Udine, via delle Scienze 208, 33100 Udine, Italy.
  4. URGV, UMR INRA 1165, CNRS-Université d'Evry Genomique Végétale, 2 rue Gaston Crémieux, BP5708, 91057 Evry cedex, France.
  5. Dipartimento di Scienze Agrarie ed Ambientali, Università degli Studi di Udine, via delle Scienze 208, 33100 Udine, Italy.
  6. CRIBI, Università degli Studi di Padova, viale G. Colombo 3, 35121 Padova, Italy.
  7. URGI, UR1164 Génomique Info, 523, Place des Terrasses, 91034 Evry Cedex, France.
  8. UMR INRA 1131, Université de Strasbourg, Santé de la Vigne et Qualité du Vin, 28 rue de Herrlisheim, BP20507, 68021 Colmar, France.
  9. Dipartimento di Scienze Biomolecolari e Biotecnologie, Università degli Studi di Milano, via Celoria 26, 20133 Milano, Italy.
  10. Dipartimento di Biochimica e Biologia Molecolare, Università degli Studi di Bari, via Orabona 4, 70125 Bari, Italy.
  11. Istituto Tecnologie Biomediche, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, via Amendola 122/D, 70125 Bari, Italy.
  12. UMR INRA 1097, IRD-Montpellier SupAgro-Univ. Montpellier II, Diversité et Adaptation des Plantes Cultivées, 2 Place Pierre Viala, 34060 Montpellier Cedex 1, France.
  13. UMR INRA 1098, IRD-Montpellier SupAgro-CIRAD, Développement et Amélioration des Plantes, 2 Place Pierre Viala, 34060 Montpellier Cedex 1, France.
  14. Dipartimento Scientifico e Tecnologico, Università degli Studi di Verona Strada Le Grazie 15 – Ca’ Vignal, 37134 Verona, Italy.
  15. Dipartimento di Scienze, Tecnologie e Mercati della Vite e del Vino, Università degli Studi di Verona, via della Pieve, 70 37029 S. Floriano (VR), Italy.
  16. VIGNA-CRA Initiative; Consorzio Interuniversitario Nazionale per la Biologia Molecolare delle Piante, c/o Università degli Studi di Siena, via Banchi di Sotto 55, 53100 Siena, Italy.
  17. A list of participants and their affiliations appears at the end of the paper.
  18. These authors contributed equally to this work.

Correspondence to: Correspondence and requests for materials should be addressed to P.W. (Email: pwincker@genoscope.cns.fr).

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial-Share Alike licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/), which permits distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. This license does not permit commercial exploitation, and derivative works must be licensed under the same or similar licence.

The analysis of the first plant genomes provided unexpected evidence for genome duplication events in species that had previously been considered as true diploids on the basis of their genetics1, 2, 3. These polyploidization events may have had important consequences in plant evolution, in particular for species radiation and adaptation and for the modulation of functional capacities4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10. Here we report a high-quality draft of the genome sequence of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) obtained from a highly homozygous genotype. The draft sequence of the grapevine genome is the fourth one produced so far for flowering plants, the second for a woody species and the first for a fruit crop (cultivated for both fruit and beverage). Grapevine was selected because of its important place in the cultural heritage of humanity beginning during the Neolithic period11. Several large expansions of gene families with roles in aromatic features are observed. The grapevine genome has not undergone recent genome duplication, thus enabling the discovery of ancestral traits and features of the genetic organization of flowering plants. This analysis reveals the contribution of three ancestral genomes to the grapevine haploid content. This ancestral arrangement is common to many dicotyledonous plants but is absent from the genome of rice, which is a monocotyledon. Furthermore, we explain the chronology of previously described whole-genome duplication events in the evolution of flowering plants.

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