Supplementary information

From the following article:

Botany:  A record-breaking pollen catapult

Joan Edwards, Dwight Whitaker, Sarah Klionsky & Marta J. Laskowski

Nature 435, 164(12 May 2005)

doi:10.1038/435164a

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Supplementary methods

Provides information on the study site and plants, technical information on video recordings and their analyses, and details of the sodium azide and turgor pressure experiments. We also describe how we measured the time it takes for an Impatiens pallida fruit to explode, the force required to open a flower, and the distance pollen can travel.

Supplementary video 1

Close up high-speed (10,000 fps) video of an exploding mature flower of Cornus canadensis. This video covers 13.2 ms and is played at 15 fps.

Supplementary video 2

Distant high-speed (1,000 fps) video of a Cornus canadensis floral explosion showing vertical pollen release. The video was over-exposed to make pollen stand out. The wire used to trigger the explosion and a mm scale are visible. This video covers 210 ms and is played at 15 fps.

Supplementary video 3

Close-up high-speed (10,000 fps) video of an exploding mature flower of Cornus canadensis with all four filaments cut showing that stamen movement does not contribute to rapid petal opening. This video covers 21.1 ms and is played at 15 fps. The wire used to trigger the explosion is visible.

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