Brief Communications

Nature 410, 1047-1048 (26 April 2001) | doi:10.1038/35074179

Human immunodeficiency virus: Phylogeny and the origin of HIV-1

Andrew Rambaut1, David L. Robertson1, Oliver G. Pybus1, Martine Peeters2 & Edward C. Holmes1

The origin of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is controversial. We show here that viruses obtained from the Democratic Republic of Congo in Africa have a quantitatively different phylogenetic tree structure from those sampled in other parts of the world. This indicates that the structure of HIV-1 phylogenies is the result of epidemiological processes acting within human populations alone, and is not due to multiple cross-species transmission initiated by oral polio vaccination.

  1. Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PS, UK
  2. Laboratoire Retrovirus, IRD, BP 5045, 34032 Montpellier Cedex1, France

Correspondence to: Edward C. Holmes1 e-mail: Email: