FIGURE 34. The human genetic code and associated tRNA genes.

From the following article:

Initial sequencing and analysis of the human genome

International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium Eric S. Lander, Lauren M. Linton, Bruce Birren, Chad Nusbaum, Michael C. Zody, Jennifer Baldwin, Keri Devon, Ken Dewar, Michael Doyle, William FitzHugh, Roel Funke, Diane Gage, Katrina Harris, Andrew Heaford, John Howland, Lisa Kann, Jessica Lehoczky, Rosie LeVine, Paul McEwan, Kevin McKernan, James Meldrim, Jill P. Mesirov, Cher Miranda, William Morris, Jerome Naylor, Christina Raymond, Mark Rosetti, Ralph Santos, Andrew Sheridan, Carrie Sougnez, Nicole Stange-Thomann, Nikola Stojanovic, Aravind Subramanian & Dudley Wyman for Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Center for Genome Research:, Jane Rogers, John Sulston, Rachael Ainscough, Stephan Beck, David Bentley, John Burton, Christopher Clee, Nigel Carter, Alan Coulson, Rebecca Deadman, Panos Deloukas, Andrew Dunham, Ian Dunham, Richard Durbin, Lisa French, Darren Grafham, Simon Gregory, Tim Hubbard, Sean Humphray, Adrienne Hunt, Matthew Jones, Christine Lloyd, Amanda McMurray, Lucy Matthews, Simon Mercer, Sarah Milne, James C. Mullikin, Andrew Mungall, Robert Plumb, Mark Ross, Ratna Shownkeen & Sarah Sims for The Sanger Centre:, Robert H. Waterston, Richard K. Wilson, LaDeana W. Hillier, John D. McPherson, Marco A. Marra, Elaine R. Mardis, Lucinda A. Fulton, Asif T. Chinwalla, Kymberlie H. Pepin, Warren R. Gish, Stephanie L. Chissoe, Michael C. Wendl, Kim D. Delehaunty, Tracie L. Miner, Andrew Delehaunty, Jason B. Kramer, Lisa L. Cook, Robert S. Fulton, Douglas L. Johnson, Patrick J. Minx & Sandra W. Clifton for Washington University Genome Sequencing Center, Trevor Hawkins, Elbert Branscomb, Paul Predki, Paul Richardson, Sarah Wenning, Tom Slezak, Norman Doggett, Jan-Fang Cheng, Anne Olsen, Susan Lucas, Christopher Elkin, Edward Uberbacher & Marvin Frazier for US DOE Joint Genome Institute:, Richard A. Gibbs, Donna M. Muzny, Steven E. Scherer, John B. Bouck, Erica J. Sodergren, Kim C. Worley, Catherine M. Rives, James H. Gorrell, Michael L. Metzker, Susan L. Naylor, Raju S. Kucherlapati, David L. Nelson & George M. Weinstock for Baylor College of Medicine Human Genome Sequencing Center:, Yoshiyuki Sakaki, Asao Fujiyama, Masahira Hattori, Tetsushi Yada, Atsushi Toyoda, Takehiko Itoh, Chiharu Kawagoe, Hidemi Watanabe, Yasushi Totoki & Todd Taylor for RIKEN Genomic Sciences Center:, Jean Weissenbach, Roland Heilig, William Saurin, Francois Artiguenave, Philippe Brottier, Thomas Bruls, Eric Pelletier, Catherine Robert & Patrick Wincker for Genoscope and CNRS UMR-8030:, André Rosenthal, Matthias Platzer, Gerald Nyakatura, Stefan Taudien & Andreas Rump for Department of Genome Analysis, Institute of Molecular Biotechnology:, Douglas R. Smith, Lynn Doucette-Stamm, Marc Rubenfield, Keith Weinstock, Hong Mei Lee & JoAnn Dubois for GTC Sequencing Center:, Huanming Yang, Jun Yu, Jian Wang, Guyang Huang & Jun Gu for Beijing Genomics Institute/Human Genome Center:, Leroy Hood, Lee Rowen, Anup Madan & Shizen Qin for Multimegabase Sequencing Center, The Institute for Systems Biology:, Ronald W. Davis, Nancy A. Federspiel, A. Pia Abola & Michael J. Proctor for Stanford Genome Technology Center:, Bruce A. Roe, Feng Chen & Huaqin Pan for University of Oklahoma's Advanced Center for Genome Technology:, Juliane Ramser, Hans Lehrach & Richard Reinhardt for Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics:, W. Richard McCombie, Melissa de la Bastide & Neilay Dedhia for Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Lita Annenberg Hazen Genome Center:, Helmut Blöcker, Klaus Hornischer & Gabriele Nordsiek for GBF—German Research Centre for Biotechnology:, Richa Agarwala, L. Aravind, Jeffrey A. Bailey, Alex Bateman, Serafim Batzoglou, Ewan Birney, Peer Bork, Daniel G. Brown, Christopher B. Burge, Lorenzo Cerutti, Hsiu-Chuan Chen, Deanna Church, Michele Clamp, Richard R. Copley, Tobias Doerks, Sean R. Eddy, Evan E. Eichler, Terrence S. Furey, James Galagan, James G. R. Gilbert, Cyrus Harmon, Yoshihide Hayashizaki, David Haussler, Henning Hermjakob, Karsten Hokamp, Wonhee Jang, L. Steven Johnson, Thomas A. Jones, Simon Kasif, Arek Kaspryzk, Scot Kennedy, W. James Kent, Paul Kitts, Eugene V. Koonin, Ian Korf, David Kulp, Doron Lancet, Todd M. Lowe, Aoife McLysaght, Tarjei Mikkelsen, John V. Moran, Nicola Mulder, Victor J. Pollara, Chris P. Ponting, Greg Schuler, Jörg Schultz, Guy Slater, Arian F. A. Smit, Elia Stupka, Joseph Szustakowki, Danielle Thierry-Mieg, Jean Thierry-Mieg, Lukas Wagner, John Wallis, Raymond Wheeler, Alan Williams, Yuri I. Wolf, Kenneth H. Wolfe, Shiaw-Pyng Yang & Ru-Fang Yeh for *Genome Analysis Group (listed in alphabetical order, also includes individuals listed under other headings):, Francis Collins, Mark S. Guyer, Jane Peterson, Adam Felsenfeld & Kris A. Wetterstrand for Scientific management: National Human Genome Research Institute, US National Institutes of Health:, Richard M. Myers, Jeremy Schmutz, Mark Dickson, Jane Grimwood & David R. Cox for Stanford Human Genome Center:, Maynard V. Olson, Rajinder Kaul & Christopher Raymond for University of Washington Genome Center:, Nobuyoshi Shimizu, Kazuhiko Kawasaki & Shinsei Minoshima for Department of Molecular Biology, Keio University School of Medicine:, Glen A. Evans, Maria Athanasiou & Roger Schultz for University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas:, Aristides Patrinos for Office of Science, US Department of Energy: & Michael J. Morgan for The Wellcome Trust:

Nature 409, 860-921(15 February 2001)

doi:10.1038/35057062

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For each of the 64 codons, we show: the corresponding amino acid; the observed frequency of the codon per 10,000 codons; the codon; predicted wobble pairing to a tRNA anticodon (black lines); an unmodified tRNA anticodon sequence; and the number of tRNA genes found with this anticodon. For example, phenylalanine is encoded by UUU or UUC; UUC is seen more frequently, 203 to 171 occurrences per 10,000 total codons; both codons are expected to be decoded by a single tRNA anticodon type, GAA, using a G/U wobble; and there are 14 tRNA genes found with this anticodon. The modified anticodon sequence in the mature tRNA is not shown, even where post-transcriptional modifications can be confidently predicted (for example, when an A is used to decode a U/C third position, the A is almost certainly an inosine in the mature tRNA). The Figure also does not show the number of distinct tRNA species (such as distinct sequence families) for each anticodon; often there is more than one species for each anticodon.

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