Clinical Study

Eye advance online publication 24 March 2017; doi: 10.1038/eye.2017.40

The association of maternal factors with epibulbar dermoid of newborn: a retrospective, matched case–control study

S Wu1,4, Y Fan2,4, D Wu1, J Hong1,3 and J Xu1

  1. 1Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Eye, Ear, Nose, and Throat Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai, China
  2. 2Department of Nursing, Eye, Ear, Nose, and Throat Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai, China
  3. 3Schepens Eye Research Institute, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA

Correspondence: J Xu, Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Eye, Ear, Nose, and Throat Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, 83 Fenyang Road, Shanghai 200031, China Tel/Fax: 8613816881607. E-mail: jianjiangxu@126.com

4These authors contributed equally to this work and are considered first authors.

Received: 12 July 2016; Accepted in revised form: 31 January 2017
Advance online publication 24 March 2017

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Abstract

Purpose

  

To determine the association of maternal factors and exposure during pregnancy with the incidence in newborns of epibulbar dermoid (ED), a congenital ocular surface benign tumor.

Patients and methods

  

This is a retrospective, paired case–control study in which 121 children with ED (case group) and 121 children without ED (control group) were recruited. Questionnaire-based interviews with mothers of participants were performed and maternal medical records during pregnancy were reviewed. The questionnaire investigated basic information, personal history, environmental exposure, exposure to maternal diseases, symptoms and corresponding medical treatments during pregnancy, and parental socioeconomic status. The case and control participants were matched for sex, birth weight, gestational age, and parental socioeconomic status level. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted with ED as the main outcome variable.

Results

  

Factors significantly associated with ED were: history of maternal inevitable miscarriage (odds ratio (OR), 2.59; 95% confidence intervals (CI), 1.13–5.90), common cold in the first trimester (OR, 3.94; CI, 1.74–8.93), and paternal smoke exposure >half a pack per day during pregnancy (OR, 4.81; CI, 1.74–13.28).

Conclusion

  

History of maternal miscarriage, common cold exposure in the first trimester, and paternal smoking (>half a pack per day) during pregnancy could result in significant risk factors for ED of newborns. These data also imply that paternal smoking delivers nicotine to maternal respiratory system and uterine microenvironment that may both affect microvascular development and predispose the fetus to future ED.

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