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Metastatic melanoma has been among the most difficult cancers to treat with limited and highly toxic treatment options. Recent advances in immune checkpoint inhibitors and molecularly targeted drugs have profoundly changed the life expectancy and quality of life of patients with metastatic melanoma. Therapeutic options are broadening for these patients and these recent articles in the BJC illustrate the trajectory of current research.
Tumour MiRNAs - the focus of these articles is on changes during treatment, detection in urine or detection in tumours and how they relate to outcome and prognosis in a wide range of tumour types - pancreatic, prostate, bladder, colon cancer, melanoma, multiple myeloma and peripheral nerve sheath tumours. Though there is a major focus on genetic changes and the targeting of cancer treatment, microRNAs are another significant epigenetic mechanism for regulation in tumour biology that needs to integrated with the genetic profiles.
We increasingly recognize that multiple factors influence disease outcome in breast cancer. A series of papers in the BJC shed new lights on how the method of diagnosis (screen detected versus self-detected), timing of initiation of therapy, factors that influence treatment compliance, and molecular features of the cancer contribute to treatment outcome. Understanding these variables that influence survival is critical for making optimal treatment recommendations in the clinic and also defines areas for future research.
Lifestyle is now known to contribute significantly to global cancer burdens. We highlight here some recent studies and meta-analyses that identify various factors associated with risk of developing cancer.Both prevention and increased risk have been variously associated with fruit and vegetable or whole grain product intake, meat consumption, and alcohol, and these, along with inadequate physical exercise and obesity are discussed in these papers.