Zoology

  • Article
    | Open Access

    In animal groups, the degree of alignment of individuals could have different benefits and costs for individuals depending on their reliance on private or social information. Here the authors show that in shoals of three-spined sticklebacks, some individuals reach resources faster when groups are disordered, a state which favours reliance on privately acquired information, while other individuals reach resources faster when groups are ordered, allowing them to exploit social information more effectively.

    • Hannah E. A. MacGregor
    • , James E. Herbert-Read
    •  & Christos C. Ioannou
  • Article
    | Open Access

    In addition to species richness, evolutionary measures of biodiversity are important considerations for conservation. Here, Gumbs et al. develop new biodiversity metrics incorporating phylogenetic diversity and human pressure and highlight conservation priorities in a global analysis of reptiles.

    • Rikki Gumbs
    • , Claudia L. Gray
    • , Monika Böhm
    • , Michael Hoffmann
    • , Richard Grenyer
    • , Walter Jetz
    • , Shai Meiri
    • , Uri Roll
    • , Nisha R. Owen
    •  & James Rosindell
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Fast metabolisms tend to shorten lifespans by increasing oxidative damage. This study identifies a gene mutation that keeps a key antioxidant response active, possibly allowing Neoaves bird species to avoid the tradeoff between rapid metabolism and longevity that challenges most mammals, including humans.

    • Gianni M. Castiglione
    • , Zhenhua Xu
    • , Lingli Zhou
    •  & Elia J. Duh
  • Article
    | Open Access

    In birds, the hand-wing index is a morphological trait that can be used as a proxy for flight efficiency. Here the authors examine variation of hand-wing index in over 10,000 bird species, finding that it is higher in migratory and non-territorial species, and lower in the tropics.

    • Catherine Sheard
    • , Montague H. C. Neate-Clegg
    • , Nico Alioravainen
    • , Samuel E. I. Jones
    • , Claire Vincent
    • , Hannah E. A. MacGregor
    • , Tom P. Bregman
    • , Santiago Claramunt
    •  & Joseph A. Tobias
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella is a cosmopolitan agricultural pest. By analyzing 532 genomes from 114 populations around the world, the authors find evidence supporting a South American origin of this moth, and look for signatures of positive selection.

    • Minsheng You
    • , Fushi Ke
    • , Shijun You
    • , Zhangyan Wu
    • , Qingfeng Liu
    • , Weiyi He
    • , Simon W. Baxter
    • , Zhiguang Yuchi
    • , Liette Vasseur
    • , Geoff M. Gurr
    • , Christopher M. Ward
    • , Hugo Cerda
    • , Guang Yang
    • , Lu Peng
    • , Yuanchun Jin
    • , Miao Xie
    • , Lijun Cai
    • , Carl J. Douglas
    • , Murray B. Isman
    • , Mark S. Goettel
    • , Qisheng Song
    • , Qinghai Fan
    • , Gefu Wang-Pruski
    • , David C. Lees
    • , Zhen Yue
    • , Jianlin Bai
    • , Tiansheng Liu
    • , Lianyun Lin
    • , Yunkai Zheng
    • , Zhaohua Zeng
    • , Sheng Lin
    • , Yue Wang
    • , Qian Zhao
    • , Xiaofeng Xia
    • , Wenbin Chen
    • , Lilin Chen
    • , Mingmin Zou
    • , Jinying Liao
    • , Qiang Gao
    • , Xiaodong Fang
    • , Ye Yin
    • , Huanming Yang
    • , Jian Wang
    • , Liwei Han
    • , Yingjun Lin
    • , Yanping Lu
    •  & Mousheng Zhuang
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Sea-ice cover in Antarctica has increased over the last decades and reached a maximum in 2014. Here, the authors report strong declines in zoobenthic biomass and abundance and changes in community composition on the NE Weddell Sea shelf over 26 years, with implications for blue carbon and biochemistry in a globally important marine region.

    • Santiago E. A. Pineda-Metz
    • , Dieter Gerdes
    •  & Claudio Richter
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Chronic bee paralysis is a viral disease of honey bees with a global distribution, but its epidemiology isn’t well understood. Here, Budge et al., using government honey bee health inspection records from England and Wales, demonstrate the disease is emergent and highlight periodic reintroduction of the disease between years.

    • Giles E. Budge
    • , Nicola K. Simcock
    • , Philippa J. Holder
    • , Mark D. F. Shirley
    • , Mike A. Brown
    • , Pauline S. M. Van Weymers
    • , David J. Evans
    •  & Steve P. Rushton
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Hybrid genomes provide a window into the speciation process over time. Here, Chaturvedi et al. use Lycaeides butterflies from hybrid zones of different ages to show that selection and recombination have repeatable effects on hybrid genome composition across timescales.

    • Samridhi Chaturvedi
    • , Lauren K. Lucas
    • , C. Alex Buerkle
    • , James A. Fordyce
    • , Matthew L. Forister
    • , Chris C. Nice
    •  & Zachariah Gompert
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Organisms living on and inside of plants—such as microbes and herbivorous insects—can interact in complex ways. Here the authors show that a plant virus increases the temperature of the plant and also the thermal tolerance of an aphid species feeding on the plant; this change in thermal tolerance also affects competition with another aphid species.

    • Mitzy F. Porras
    • , Carlos A. Navas
    • , James H. Marden
    • , Mark C. Mescher
    • , Consuelo M. De Moraes
    • , Sylvain Pincebourde
    • , Andrés Sandoval-Mojica
    • , Juan A. Raygoza-Garay
    • , German A. Holguin
    • , Edwin G. Rajotte
    •  & Tomás A. Carlo
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Previously only humans and the great apes have been shown to use probabilities to make predictions about uncertain events, and integrate social and physical information into their predictions. Here, the authors demonstrate these capacities in a parrot species, the kea.

    • Amalia P. M. Bastos
    •  & Alex H. Taylor
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Cleaner fish can cheat clients for higher rewards but this comes with a risk of punishment. Here, Truskanov et al. show that juvenile cleaner fish can learn by observing adults to behave more cooperatively themselves but also to prefer clients that are more tolerant to cheating.

    • Noa Truskanov
    • , Yasmin Emery
    •  & Redouan Bshary
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Zoos contribute to conservation actions in the wild. Here, Mooney et al. use a global dataset to show that, while zoos with more and larger animals attract the most visitors and contribute the most to conservation projects, there are viable alternative strategies to maximise attendance and conservation activity.

    • Andrew Mooney
    • , Dalia A. Conde
    • , Kevin Healy
    •  & Yvonne M. Buckley
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Few studies empirically pinpoint how balanced polymorphisms are maintained. “Mérot et al”. identify an inversion polymorphism that is maintained in seaweed fly populations because of antagonistic pleiotropy that mediates a classic life history tradeoff between larval survival and adult reproduction.

    • Claire Mérot
    • , Violaine Llaurens
    • , Eric Normandeau
    • , Louis Bernatchez
    •  & Maren Wellenreuther
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Honeybees have a sophisticated system to communicate foraging locations through a “dance”, but they also share food-related olfactory cues. Here, Hasenjager and colleagues use social network analysis to disentangle how foraging information is transmitted through these systems in different contexts.

    • Matthew J. Hasenjager
    • , William Hoppitt
    •  & Ellouise Leadbeater
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Butterfly wings have low thermal capacity and thus are vulnerable to damage by overheating. Here, Tsai et al. take an interdisciplinary approach to reveal the organs, nanostructures and behaviors that enable butterflies to sense and regulate their wing temperature.

    • Cheng-Chia Tsai
    • , Richard A. Childers
    • , Norman Nan Shi
    • , Crystal Ren
    • , Julianne N. Pelaez
    • , Gary D. Bernard
    • , Naomi E. Pierce
    •  & Nanfang Yu
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Animals can obtain information on predation risk directly from observing predators or indirectly from the alarm calls of others. Here, the authors show that red-breasted nuthatches encode information on risk in their own alarm calls differently depending on the source of the information.

    • Nora V Carlson
    • , Erick Greene
    •  & Christopher N Templeton
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Acoustic communication is widespread, but not universal, across terrestrial vertebrates. Here, the authors show that acoustic communication evolved anciently, but independently, in most tetrapod groups and that these origins were associated with nocturnal activity.

    • Zhuo Chen
    •  & John J. Wiens
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Pheromones are an essential cue for species recognition and mate selection in many insects including the butterfly Bicyclus anynana. Here the authors show that females with a short social experience of a new male learn preferences for novel pheromone blends, a preference which also occurs in their daughters.

    • Emilie Dion
    • , Li Xian Pui
    • , Katie Weber
    •  & Antónia Monteiro
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Numerous feathered dinosaurs and early birds have been discovered from the Jurassic and Cretaceous, but the early evolution of feather-feeding insects is not clear. Here, Gao et al. describe a new family of ectoparasitic insects from 10 specimens found associated with feathers in mid-Cretaceous amber.

    • Taiping Gao
    • , Xiangchu Yin
    • , Chungkun Shih
    • , Alexandr P. Rasnitsyn
    • , Xing Xu
    • , Sha Chen
    • , Chen Wang
    •  & Dong Ren
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The cerebellum is critical in sensory-motor control and is structurally diverse across vertebrates. Here, the authors investigate the evolutionary relationship between locomotory mode and cerebellum architecture across squamates by integrating study of gene expression, cell distribution, and 3D morphology.

    • Simone Macrì
    • , Yoland Savriama
    • , Imran Khan
    •  & Nicolas Di-Poï
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Recent studies have suggested that hybridization can facilitate adaptive radiations. Here, the authors show that opportunity for hybridization differentiates Lake Mweru, where cichlids radiated, and Lake Bangweulu, where cichlids did not radiate despite ecological opportunity in both lakes.

    • Joana I. Meier
    • , Rike B. Stelkens
    • , Domino A. Joyce
    • , Salome Mwaiko
    • , Numel Phiri
    • , Ulrich K. Schliewen
    • , Oliver M. Selz
    • , Catherine E. Wagner
    • , Cyprian Katongo
    •  & Ole Seehausen
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Recent work has suggested that lift and drag may be employed differently in slow, flapping flight compared to classic flight aerodynamics. Here the authors develop a method to measure vertical and horizontal aerodynamic forces simultaneously and use it to quantify lift and drag during slow flight.

    • Diana D. Chin
    •  & David Lentink
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Microbes can establish mutualistic interactions with plants and insects. Here, Kim et al. show that Streptomyces bacteria can protect strawberry plants and honeybees from pathogens, can move into the plant vascular tissue from soil and from flowers, and are transferred among flowers by the pollinators.

    • Da-Ran Kim
    • , Gyeongjun Cho
    • , Chang-Wook Jeon
    • , David M. Weller
    • , Linda S. Thomashow
    • , Timothy C. Paulitz
    •  & Youn-Sig Kwak
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Biology serves as inspiration in materials development; this requires improved understanding of the surface chemistry responsible for processes which are being mimicked. Here, the authors report on the use of near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) imaging to analyze the surface chemistry of insect cuticle.

    • Joe E. Baio
    • , Cherno Jaye
    • , Erin Sullivan
    • , Mette H. Rasmussen
    • , Daniel A. Fischer
    • , Stanislav Gorb
    •  & Tobias Weidner
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Parental care can take many forms but how this diversity arises is not well understood. Here, the authors compile data for over 1300 amphibian species and show that different forms of care evolve at different rates, prolonged care can be easily reduced, and biparental care is evolutionarily unstable.

    • Andrew I. Furness
    •  & Isabella Capellini
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Vocal development in humans and primate model systems is typically attributed to changing neural circuits. Here the authors show in marmoset monkeys that biomechanical changes in the vocal organ underlie the transition from infant cries to adult contact calls, demonstrating that vocal development is not solely due to neural control.

    • Yisi S. Zhang
    • , Daniel Y. Takahashi
    • , Diana A. Liao
    • , Asif A. Ghazanfar
    •  & Coen P. H. Elemans
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Deep learning has the potential to identify ecological relationships between environment and complex phenotypes that are difficult to quantify. Here, the authors use deep learning to analyse associations among elevation, climate and phenotype across ~2000 moth species in Taiwan.

    • Shipher Wu
    • , Chun-Min Chang
    • , Guan-Shuo Mai
    • , Dustin R. Rubenstein
    • , Chen-Ming Yang
    • , Yu-Ting Huang
    • , Hsu-Hong Lin
    • , Li-Cheng Shih
    • , Sheng-Wei Chen
    •  & Sheng-Feng Shen
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The fish Astyanax mexicanus has divergent cave and river-dwelling eco-morphotypes. Here, Hyacinthe et al. show that cave and river fish communicate sonically, but that the sounds produced and the responses elicited in the two morphs depend differently on the social and behavioral context.

    • Carole Hyacinthe
    • , Joël Attia
    •  & Sylvie Rétaux
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella, is one of the major pests of pome fruit (apples and pears) and walnuts. Here, the authors sequence and analyze its genome, providing insights on olfactory and detoxification processes that may underlie its worldwide expansion.

    • Fanghao Wan
    • , Chuanlin Yin
    • , Rui Tang
    • , Maohua Chen
    • , Qiang Wu
    • , Cong Huang
    • , Wanqiang Qian
    • , Omar Rota-Stabelli
    • , Nianwan Yang
    • , Shuping Wang
    • , Guirong Wang
    • , Guifen Zhang
    • , Jianyang Guo
    • , Liuqi (Aloy) Gu
    • , Longfei Chen
    • , Longsheng Xing
    • , Yu Xi
    • , Feiling Liu
    • , Kejian Lin
    • , Mengbo Guo
    • , Wei Liu
    • , Kang He
    • , Ruizheng Tian
    • , Emmanuelle Jacquin-Joly
    • , Pierre Franck
    • , Myriam Siegwart
    • , Lino Ometto
    • , Gianfranco Anfora
    • , Mark Blaxter
    • , Camille Meslin
    • , Petr Nguyen
    • , Martina Dalíková
    • , František Marec
    • , Jérôme Olivares
    • , Sandrine Maugin
    • , Jianru Shen
    • , Jinding Liu
    • , Jinmeng Guo
    • , Jiapeng Luo
    • , Bo Liu
    • , Wei Fan
    • , Likai Feng
    • , Xianxin Zhao
    • , Xiong Peng
    • , Kang Wang
    • , Lang Liu
    • , Haixia Zhan
    • , Wanxue Liu
    • , Guoliang Shi
    • , Chunyan Jiang
    • , Jisu Jin
    • , Xiaoqing Xian
    • , Sha Lu
    • , Mingli Ye
    • , Meizhen Li
    • , Minglu Yang
    • , Renci Xiong
    • , James R. Walters
    •  & Fei Li
  • Article
    | Open Access

    A single species of electric eel, Electrophorus electricus, has been described. Here, de Santana et al. show that there are three major lineages of Electrophorus distributed across Greater Amazonia and describe two new species, one with a much stronger electric discharge than was previously known.

    • C. David de Santana
    • , William G. R. Crampton
    • , Casey B. Dillman
    • , Renata G. Frederico
    • , Mark H. Sabaj
    • , Raphaël Covain
    • , Jonathan Ready
    • , Jansen Zuanon
    • , Renildo R. de Oliveira
    • , Raimundo N. Mendes-Júnior
    • , Douglas A. Bastos
    • , Tulio F. Teixeira
    • , Jan Mol
    • , Willian Ohara
    • , Natália Castro e Castro
    • , Luiz A. Peixoto
    • , Cleusa Nagamachi
    • , Leandro Sousa
    • , Luciano F. A. Montag
    • , Frank Ribeiro
    • , Joseph C. Waddell
    • , Nivaldo M. Piorsky
    • , Richard P. Vari
    •  & Wolmar B. Wosiacki
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Predicted responses to climate change may be informed by evolutionary history. Here, the authors reconstruct the phylogeny of lacertid lizards and investigate how the evolution of this clade has varied with paleoclimates and how closely adapted extant species are to modern climates.

    • Joan Garcia-Porta
    • , Iker Irisarri
    • , Martin Kirchner
    • , Ariel Rodríguez
    • , Sebastian Kirchhof
    • , Jason L. Brown
    • , Amy MacLeod
    • , Alexander P. Turner
    • , Faraham Ahmadzadeh
    • , Gonzalo Albaladejo
    • , Jelka Crnobrnja-Isailovic
    • , Ignacio De la Riva
    • , Adnane Fawzi
    • , Pedro Galán
    • , Bayram Göçmen
    • , D. James Harris
    • , Octavio Jiménez-Robles
    • , Ulrich Joger
    • , Olga Jovanović Glavaš
    • , Mert Karış
    • , Giannina Koziel
    • , Sven Künzel
    • , Mariana Lyra
    • , Donald Miles
    • , Manuel Nogales
    • , Mehmet Anıl Oğuz
    • , Panayiotis Pafilis
    • , Loïs Rancilhac
    • , Noemí Rodríguez
    • , Benza Rodríguez Concepción
    • , Eugenia Sanchez
    • , Daniele Salvi
    • , Tahar Slimani
    • , Abderrahim S’khifa
    • , Ali Turk Qashqaei
    • , Anamarija Žagar
    • , Alan Lemmon
    • , Emily Moriarty Lemmon
    • , Miguel Angel Carretero
    • , Salvador Carranza
    • , Hervé Philippe
    • , Barry Sinervo
    • , Johannes Müller
    • , Miguel Vences
    •  & Katharina C. Wollenberg Valero
  • Article
    | Open Access

    When injured, fish release an alarm substance produced by club cells in the skin that elicits fear in members of their shoal. Here, the authors show that mucus and bacteria are transported from the external surface into club cells, and bacterial components elicit alarm behaviour, acting in concert with a substance from fish.

    • Joanne Shu Ming Chia
    • , Elena S. Wall
    • , Caroline Lei Wee
    • , Thomas A. J. Rowland
    • , Ruey-Kuang Cheng
    • , Kathleen Cheow
    • , Karen Guillemin
    •  & Suresh Jesuthasan
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Model-based centralization schemes, though able to quantify locomotion control in animals and bio-inspired robots, are limited to specific systems. Here, the authors report a generalized information-based centralization scheme that unifies existing models and can be applied to different systems.

    • Izaak D. Neveln
    • , Amoolya Tirumalai
    •  & Simon Sponberg
  • Article
    | Open Access

    It is thought that fungi protect themselves from predators by the production of toxic compounds. Here, Xu et al. show that a wide range of animal predators avoid feeding on Fusarium fungi, and this depends on fungal production of a bis-naphthopyrone pigment that is not toxic to the predators.

    • Yang Xu
    • , Maria Vinas
    • , Albatol Alsarrag
    • , Ling Su
    • , Katharina Pfohl
    • , Marko Rohlfs
    • , Wilhelm Schäfer
    • , Wei Chen
    •  & Petr Karlovsky
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Bats are long-lived animals that can produce a complex vocabulary of social communication calls. Here, the authors show that even in adulthood, bats retain the ability to adaptively introduce long-term modifications to their vocalizations, showing persistent vocal plasticity.

    • Daria Genzel
    • , Janki Desai
    • , Elana Paras
    •  & Michael M. Yartsev
  • Article
    | Open Access

    C. elegans worms exhibit an innate preference for various stimuli. Here the authors test the pairwise behavioral preference between a large set of stimuli and report that the worms’ behavior does not conform to rationality theory due to asymmetric modulatory effects within single sensory neurons.

    • Shachar Iwanir
    • , Rotem Ruach
    • , Eyal Itskovits
    • , Christian O. Pritz
    • , Eduard Bokman
    •  & Alon Zaslaver
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The praying mantis, a predatory insect, estimates depth via binocular vision. In this way, the animal decides whether prey is within reach. Here, the authors explore the neural correlates of binocular distance estimation and report that individual neurons are tuned to specific locations in 3D space.

    • Ronny Rosner
    • , Joss von Hadeln
    • , Ghaith Tarawneh
    •  & Jenny C. A. Read
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Sensory drive theory predicts that vocal signalling coevolves with auditory sensitivity, but empirical evidence is limited. Here, Charlton et al. show that vocal characteristics and hearing have coevolved in forest mammals, due to constraints imposed by the local signalling environment.

    • Benjamin D. Charlton
    • , Megan A. Owen
    •  & Ronald R. Swaisgood
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Recording neural activity during coordinated behaviors in controlled environments limits opportunities for understanding natural interactions. Here, the authors record from freely moving duetting birds in their natural habitats to reveal the neural mechanisms of interindividual motor coordination.

    • Susanne Hoffmann
    • , Lisa Trost
    • , Cornelia Voigt
    • , Stefan Leitner
    • , Alena Lemazina
    • , Hannes Sagunsky
    • , Markus Abels
    • , Sandra Kollmansperger
    • , Andries Ter Maat
    •  & Manfred Gahr
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Dog breeds differ in evolutionary age and admixture with wolves, enabling comparison across domestication stages. Here, Hansen Wheat et al. show that correlations among behaviours are decoupled in modern breeds compared to ancient breeds and suggest this reflects a recent shift in selection pressure.

    • Christina Hansen Wheat
    • , John L. Fitzpatrick
    • , Björn Rogell
    •  & Hans Temrin
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The default mode network (DMN) is a core brain network in humans. Here, the authors show that marmoset primates also possess a DMN-like network but, unlike in the human DMN, dlPFC is a more prominent node than mPFC, suggesting mPFC is more developed in humans than in other primates.

    • Cirong Liu
    • , Cecil Chern-Chyi Yen
    • , Diego Szczupak
    • , Frank Q. Ye
    • , David A. Leopold
    •  & Afonso C. Silva
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Bumblebee workers are genetically highly similar but they show different behaviors such as brood care and foraging. Here the authors report a high level of ADAR-mediated RNA editing in the bumblebee Bombus terrestris and its weak correlation to task performance.

    • Hagit T. Porath
    • , Esther Hazan
    • , Hagai Shpigler
    • , Mira Cohen
    • , Mark Band
    • , Yehuda Ben-Shahar
    • , Erez Y. Levanon
    • , Eli Eisenberg
    •  & Guy Bloch
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Spider silk is widely studied for its structural properties; however, other creatures produce silk that could be of interest. Here, the authors study the properties and structure of Bagworm silk and report it as being extraordinarily strong and tough compared to other known silks.

    • Taiyo Yoshioka
    • , Takuya Tsubota
    • , Kohji Tashiro
    • , Akiya Jouraku
    •  & Tsunenori Kameda
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Here, Schuldt et al. collate data from two long-term grassland and forest biodiversity experiments to ask how plant diversity facets affect the diversity of higher trophic levels. The results show that positive effects of plant diversity on consumer diversity are mediated by plant structural and functional diversity, and vary across ecosystems and trophic levels.

    • Andreas Schuldt
    • , Anne Ebeling
    • , Matthias Kunz
    • , Michael Staab
    • , Claudia Guimarães-Steinicke
    • , Dörte Bachmann
    • , Nina Buchmann
    • , Walter Durka
    • , Andreas Fichtner
    • , Felix Fornoff
    • , Werner Härdtle
    • , Lionel R. Hertzog
    • , Alexandra-Maria Klein
    • , Christiane Roscher
    • , Jörg Schaller
    • , Goddert von Oheimb
    • , Alexandra Weigelt
    • , Wolfgang Weisser
    • , Christian Wirth
    • , Jiayong Zhang
    • , Helge Bruelheide
    •  & Nico Eisenhauer
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Although male genital shape is known to evolve rapidly in response to sexual selection, relatively little is known about the evolution of female genital shape. Here, the authors show that across onthophagine dung beetles, female genital shape has diverged much more rapidly than male genital shape.

    • Leigh W. Simmons
    •  & John L. Fitzpatrick
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Leaf-feeding insect microbiomes could be influenced by the soil, the plant, or a product of the two. Here, the authors conduct a series of experiments to show that an herbivorous insect predominantly acquires its microbiome from the soil rather than the plant, and that these insect microbiomes reflect soil legacies of earlier growing plants.

    • S. Emilia Hannula
    • , Feng Zhu
    • , Robin Heinen
    •  & T. Martijn Bezemer
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Long-proboscid scorpionflies were associated with mid-Mesozoic gymnosperm pollination. Here, Lin et al. establish a new family of long-proboscid scorpionflies from Myanmar amber, elucidate evolutionary mechanisms of hind-wing reduction, and detail feeding and reproductive habits of these insects.

    • Xiaodan Lin
    • , Conrad C. Labandeira
    • , Chungkun Shih
    • , Carol L. Hotton
    •  & Dong Ren
  • Article
    | Open Access

    There has been a lack of multi-year landscape-scale studies on the effect of neonicotinoids on honeybee health. Here, Osterman et al. show that clothianidin exposure via seed-treated rapeseed has no negative impact on honeybee colony development, microbial pathogens/symbionts or immune gene expression.

    • Julia Osterman
    • , Dimitry Wintermantel
    • , Barbara Locke
    • , Ove Jonsson
    • , Emilia Semberg
    • , Piero Onorati
    • , Eva Forsgren
    • , Peter Rosenkranz
    • , Thorsten Rahbek-Pedersen
    • , Riccardo Bommarco
    • , Henrik G. Smith
    • , Maj Rundlöf
    •  & Joachim R. de Miranda