X-rays

X-rays are a type of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength between 0.01 and 10 nanometres. X-rays offer an important method for investigating the atomic structure of crystalline materials and nanometre-scale structures. Distant galaxies and clusters can be detected by the X-rays they emit.

Latest Research and Reviews

  • Research |

    Echo-enabled harmonic generation in a free-electron laser enables 45th harmonic pulses from a 264 nm wavelength seed, yielding 5.9 nm wavelength coherent output.

    • Primož Rebernik Ribič
    • , Alessandro Abrami
    • , Laura Badano
    • , Maurizio Bossi
    • , Hans-Heinrich Braun
    • , Niky Bruchon
    • , Flavio Capotondi
    • , Davide Castronovo
    • , Marco Cautero
    • , Paolo Cinquegrana
    • , Marcello Coreno
    • , Marie Emmanuelle Couprie
    • , Ivan Cudin
    • , Miltcho Boyanov Danailov
    • , Giovanni De Ninno
    • , Alexander Demidovich
    • , Simone Di Mitri
    • , Bruno Diviacco
    • , William M. Fawley
    • , Chao Feng
    • , Mario Ferianis
    • , Eugenio Ferrari
    • , Laura Foglia
    • , Fabio Frassetto
    • , Giulio Gaio
    • , David Garzella
    • , Amin Ghaith
    • , Fabio Giacuzzo
    • , Luca Giannessi
    • , Vanessa Grattoni
    • , Sandi Grulja
    • , Erik Hemsing
    • , Fatma Iazzourene
    • , Gabor Kurdi
    • , Marco Lonza
    • , Nicola Mahne
    • , Marco Malvestuto
    • , Michele Manfredda
    • , Claudio Masciovecchio
    • , Paolo Miotti
    • , Najmeh S. Mirian
    • , Ivaylo Petrov Nikolov
    • , Giuseppe Maria Penco
    • , Gregory Penn
    • , Luca Poletto
    • , Mihai Pop
    • , Eduard Prat
    • , Emiliano Principi
    • , Lorenzo Raimondi
    • , Sven Reiche
    • , Eléonore Roussel
    • , Roberto Sauro
    • , Claudio Scafuri
    • , Paolo Sigalotti
    • , Simone Spampinati
    • , Carlo Spezzani
    • , Luca Sturari
    • , Michele Svandrlik
    • , Takanori Tanikawa
    • , Mauro Trovó
    • , Marco Veronese
    • , Davide Vivoda
    • , Dao Xiang
    • , Maurizio Zaccaria
    • , Dino Zangrando
    • , Marco Zangrando
    •  & Enrico Massimiliano Allaria
  • Research |

    Stereo images of gold nanoparticles in a pyramid shape are reconstructed from X-ray coherent diffraction patterns. Depth information is retrieved by computing disparity maps without a priori knowledge of the sample shape.

    • J. Duarte
    • , R. Cassin
    • , J. Huijts
    • , B. Iwan
    • , F. Fortuna
    • , L. Delbecq
    • , H. Chapman
    • , M. Fajardo
    • , M. Kovacev
    • , W. Boutu
    •  & H. Merdji
  • Research |

    Upon ultrafast irradiation, a (PbTiO3)/(SrTiO3) superlattice transforms into a complex supercrystal that contains periodicities of up to 30 nm in size and is stable in ambient. Creation and destruction, by heating, of the supercrystal is reversible.

    • V. A. Stoica
    • , N. Laanait
    • , C. Dai
    • , Z. Hong
    • , Y. Yuan
    • , Z. Zhang
    • , S. Lei
    • , M. R. McCarter
    • , A. Yadav
    • , A. R. Damodaran
    • , S. Das
    • , G. A. Stone
    • , J. Karapetrova
    • , D. A. Walko
    • , X. Zhang
    • , L. W. Martin
    • , R. Ramesh
    • , L.-Q. Chen
    • , H. Wen
    • , V. Gopalan
    •  & J. W. Freeland
    Nature Materials 18, 377-383
  • Research | | open

    It is desirable to improve spatiotemporal control of light generated by synchrotron user facilities or table-top X-ray sources. Here the authors demonstrate manipulation of hard X-rays using microelectro mechanical systems (MEMS) oscillators on timescales of 300 ps, approaching the synchrotron pulse width.

    • Pice Chen
    • , Il Woong Jung
    • , Donald A. Walko
    • , Zhilong Li
    • , Ya Gao
    • , Gopal K. Shenoy
    • , Daniel López
    •  & Jin Wang
  • Research |

    A nearly Fourier-limited X-ray free-electron laser beam is generated by a self-seeding scheme. The beam in the first half of the undulators is monochromatized via Bragg reflection, and is subsequently amplified in the remaining undulators.

    • Ichiro Inoue
    • , Taito Osaka
    • , Toru Hara
    • , Takashi Tanaka
    • , Takahiro Inagaki
    • , Toru Fukui
    • , Shunji Goto
    • , Yuichi Inubushi
    • , Hiroaki Kimura
    • , Ryota Kinjo
    • , Haruhiko Ohashi
    • , Kazuaki Togawa
    • , Kensuke Tono
    • , Mitsuhiro Yamaga
    • , Hitoshi Tanaka
    • , Tetsuya Ishikawa
    •  & Makina Yabashi
    Nature Photonics 13, 319-322

News and Comment

  • News and Views |

    Irradiating a PbTiO3/SrTiO3 superlattice with ultrafast UV light pulses modifies elastic and electrostatic interactions, resulting in the formation of a stable complex 3D supercrystal.

    • J. M. Gregg
    Nature Materials 18, 304-306
  • News and Views |

    Orbital angular momentum is a property of light that has many emerging applications, but has been poorly appreciated until recently. The wavelength frontier of orbital angular momentum sources is extending beyond the ultraviolet thanks to research in fields ranging from nanostructures to free-electron lasers.

    • James B. Rosenzweig
    Nature Photonics 13, 141-143
  • Comments and Opinion |

    Seven scientists share their views on some of the latest developments in attosecond science and X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) and highlight exciting new directions.

    • Eva Lindroth
    • , Francesca Calegari
    • , Linda Young
    • , Marion Harmand
    • , Nirit Dudovich
    • , Nora Berrah
    •  & Olga Smirnova