Viral infection

Viral infection is the invasion of the body by a small agent known as a virus. Viruses replicate inside host cells and can produce toxins that cause disease. The immune system helps to destroy viruses, but antiviral immune responses can also cause tissue damage and illness.

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Latest Research and Reviews

  • Research |

    A multiplexed fluorescence-based assay detects seroconversion in individuals infected with SARS-CoV-2 from less than 1 µl of blood as early as the day of the first positive nasopharyngeal nucleic acid test after symptom onset.

    • Maia Norman
    • , Tal Gilboa
    • , Alana F. Ogata
    • , Adam M. Maley
    • , Limor Cohen
    • , Evan L. Busch
    • , Roey Lazarovits
    • , Chih-Ping Mao
    • , Yongfei Cai
    • , Jun Zhang
    • , Jared E. Feldman
    • , Blake M. Hauser
    • , Timothy M. Caradonna
    • , Bing Chen
    • , Aaron G. Schmidt
    • , Galit Alter
    • , Richelle C. Charles
    • , Edward T. Ryan
    •  & David R. Walt
  • Research
    | Open Access

    Antibody mediated immunity to SARS-CoV-2 will affect future transmission and disease severity. This systematic review on antibody response to coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and endemic coronaviruses provides insights into kinetics, correlates of protection, and association with disease severity.

    • Angkana T. Huang
    • , Bernardo Garcia-Carreras
    • , Matt D. T. Hitchings
    • , Bingyi Yang
    • , Leah C. Katzelnick
    • , Susan M. Rattigan
    • , Brooke A. Borgert
    • , Carlos A. Moreno
    • , Benjamin D. Solomon
    • , Luke Trimmer-Smith
    • , Veronique Etienne
    • , Isabel Rodriguez-Barraquer
    • , Justin Lessler
    • , Henrik Salje
    • , Donald S. Burke
    • , Amy Wesolowski
    •  & Derek A. T. Cummings
  • Research
    | Open Access

    Highly accurate antibody tests for SARS-CoV-2 are needed for surveillance in low-prevalence populations. Here, the authors find seroprevalence of less than 1% in two San Francisco Bay Area populations at the beginning of April, and that seroreactivity is generally predictive of in vitro neutralising activity.

    • Dianna L. Ng
    • , Gregory M. Goldgof
    • , Brian R. Shy
    • , Andrew G. Levine
    • , Joanna Balcerek
    • , Sagar P. Bapat
    • , John Prostko
    • , Mary Rodgers
    • , Kelly Coller
    • , Sandra Pearce
    • , Sergej Franz
    • , Li Du
    • , Mars Stone
    • , Satish K. Pillai
    • , Alicia Sotomayor-Gonzalez
    • , Venice Servellita
    • , Claudia Sanchez San Martin
    • , Andrea Granados
    • , Dustin R. Glasner
    • , Lucy M. Han
    • , Kent Truong
    • , Naomi Akagi
    • , David N. Nguyen
    • , Neil M. Neumann
    • , Daniel Qazi
    • , Elaine Hsu
    • , Wei Gu
    • , Yale A. Santos
    • , Brian Custer
    • , Valerie Green
    • , Phillip Williamson
    • , Nancy K. Hills
    • , Chuanyi M. Lu
    • , Jeffrey D. Whitman
    • , Susan L. Stramer
    • , Candace Wang
    • , Kevin Reyes
    • , Jill M. C. Hakim
    • , Kirk Sujishi
    • , Fariba Alazzeh
    • , Lori Pham
    • , Edward Thornborrow
    • , Ching-Ying Oon
    • , Steve Miller
    • , Theodore Kurtz
    • , Graham Simmons
    • , John Hackett Jr.
    • , Michael P. Busch
    •  & Charles Y. Chiu
  • Research
    | Open Access

    New York City is one of the areas most affected by the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in the United States, and there has been large variation in rates of hospitalisation and death by city borough. Here, the authors show that boroughs with the largest reduction in daily commutes also had the lowest SARS-CoV-2 prevalence.

    • Stephen M. Kissler
    • , Nishant Kishore
    • , Malavika Prabhu
    • , Dena Goffman
    • , Yaakov Beilin
    • , Ruth Landau
    • , Cynthia Gyamfi-Bannerman
    • , Brian T. Bateman
    • , Jon Snyder
    • , Armin S. Razavi
    • , Daniel Katz
    • , Jonathan Gal
    • , Angela Bianco
    • , Joanne Stone
    • , Daniel Larremore
    • , Caroline O. Buckee
    •  & Yonatan H. Grad
  • Research |

    Convalescent plasma for treatment of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 is associated with improved survival in a retrospective comparison with matched controls, supporting further study in randomized controlled trials.

    • Sean T. H. Liu
    • , Hung-Mo Lin
    • , Ian Baine
    • , Ania Wajnberg
    • , Jeffrey P. Gumprecht
    • , Farah Rahman
    • , Denise Rodriguez
    • , Pranai Tandon
    • , Adel Bassily-Marcus
    • , Jeffrey Bander
    • , Charles Sanky
    • , Amy Dupper
    • , Allen Zheng
    • , Freddy T. Nguyen
    • , Fatima Amanat
    • , Daniel Stadlbauer
    • , Deena R. Altman
    • , Benjamin K. Chen
    • , Florian Krammer
    • , Damodara Rao Mendu
    • , Adolfo Firpo-Betancourt
    • , Matthew A. Levin
    • , Emilia Bagiella
    • , Arturo Casadevall
    • , Carlos Cordon-Cardo
    • , Jeffrey S. Jhang
    • , Suzanne A. Arinsburg
    • , David L. Reich
    • , Judith A. Aberg
    •  & Nicole M. Bouvier
  • Reviews |

    The COVID-19 pandemic has prompted unparalleled progress in the development of vaccines and therapeutics in many countries, but it has also highlighted the vulnerability of resource-limited countries in Africa. Margolin and colleagues review global efforts to develop SARS-CoV-2 diagnostics, therapeutics and vaccines, with a focus on the opportunities and challenges in Africa.

    • Emmanuel Margolin
    • , Wendy A. Burgers
    • , Edward D. Sturrock
    • , Marc Mendelson
    • , Rosamund Chapman
    • , Nicola Douglass
    • , Anna-Lise Williamson
    •  & Edward P. Rybicki

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