Translation

Translation is the process by which a protein is synthesized by the ribosome, using a messenger RNA (mRNA) template.

Latest Research and Reviews

  • Research |

    High-fidelity convergent total synthesis is used to produce Escherichia coli with a 61-codon synthetic genome that uses 59 codons to encode all of the canonical amino acids.

    • Julius Fredens
    • , Kaihang Wang
    • , Daniel de la Torre
    • , Louise F. H. Funke
    • , Wesley E. Robertson
    • , Yonka Christova
    • , Tiongsun Chia
    • , Wolfgang H. Schmied
    • , Daniel L. Dunkelmann
    • , Václav Beránek
    • , Chayasith Uttamapinant
    • , Andres Gonzalez Llamazares
    • , Thomas S. Elliott
    •  & Jason W. Chin
    Nature 569, 514-518
  • Research | | open

    The nuclear pore complex (NPC) is known to regulate p53 signaling and this has mainly been linked to peripheral NPC subunits. Here the authors show that Nup155 from the NPC inner ring regulates the p53 pathway by controlling p21 translation while also being a target of p53-mediated repression.

    • Kerstin Holzer
    • , Alessandro Ori
    • , Amy Cooke
    • , Daniel Dauch
    • , Elisabeth Drucker
    • , Philip Riemenschneider
    • , Amparo Andres-Pons
    • , Amanda L. DiGuilio
    • , Marie-Therese Mackmull
    • , Jochen Baßler
    • , Stephanie Roessler
    • , Kai Breuhahn
    • , Lars Zender
    • , Joseph S. Glavy
    • , Frank Dombrowski
    • , Ed Hurt
    • , Peter Schirmacher
    • , Martin Beck
    •  & Stephan Singer
  • Research | | open

    During the integrated stress response, translation is modulated through the phosphorylation of translation initiation factor eIF2 and the formation of a complex with eIF2B. Here the authors present structures of the eIF2:eIF2B complex with and without phosphorylation, shedding light on how eIF2 phosphorylation regulates translation.

    • Tomas Adomavicius
    • , Margherita Guaita
    • , Yu Zhou
    • , Martin D. Jennings
    • , Zakia Latif
    • , Alan M. Roseman
    •  & Graham D. Pavitt

News and Comment

  • News and Views |

    In the ribosome-associated quality control (RQC) pathway, stalled ribosomes are ubiquitinated and dissociated into subunits. The nascent protein chain associated with the 60S ribosomal subunit is ubiquitinated by the E3 ligase Listerin (Ltn1) and is released from tRNA by ANKZF1 (Vms1) for proteasomal degradation. Shao and colleagues now report that ANKZF1 (Vms1)-cleaved tRNAs are recycled via a two-step process that requires the removal of a terminal 2′,3′-cyclic phosphate and the addition of CCA by TRNT1.

    • Toshifumi Inada
  • News and Views |

    Bacteria have previously been assumed to cope with environmental stress by tuning their total number of active ribosomes. Instead, a study in this issue of Nature Microbiology shows that from a heterogeneous pool of ribosomes, Vibrio vulnificus uses ribosomes with a particular ribosomal RNA variant to translate upregulated stress response mRNAs.

    • Kathrin Leppek
    •  & Maria Barna
    Nature Microbiology 4, 382-383
  • News and Views |

    A growing body of evidence suggests that cotranslational folding occurs from bacteria to mammalian cells, in particular for multi-domain proteins. In the assembly of yeast proteasomes, the initial interaction of Rpt1 and Rpt2 subunits has been found to take place on the translating ribosomes, coordinated by elongation pausing and involving the formation of Not1-containing compartments.

    • Xiao-Min Liu
    •  & Shu-Bing Qian
  • News and Views |

    Stressed eukaryotic cells store mRNAs in protein-rich condensates called stress granules. Using single-molecule tracking techniques to examine how mRNAs enter stress granules, a new study shows that mRNAs make transient contacts with the granule surface before stable association, and become largely immobile after entry.

    • Chih-Yung Lee
    •  & Geraldine Seydoux
    Nature Cell Biology 21, 116-117