Translation

Definition

Translation is the process by which a protein is synthesized by the ribosome, using a messenger RNA (mRNA) template.

Latest Research and Reviews

  • Research | | open

    Subcellular localization of RNAs and proteins is important for polarized cells such as neurons. Here the authors differentiate mouse embryonic stem cells into neurons, and analyze the local transcriptome, proteome, and translated transcriptome in their cell bodies and neurites, providing a unique resource for future studies on neuronal polarity.

    • Alessandra Zappulo
    • , David Bruck
    • , Camilla Ciolli Mattioli
    • , Vedran Franke
    • , Koshi Imami
    • , Erik McShane
    • , Mireia Moreno-Estelles
    • , Lorenzo Calviello
    • , Andrei Filipchyk
    • , Esteban Peguero-Sanchez
    • , Thomas Müller
    • , Andrew Woehler
    • , Carmen Birchmeier
    • , Enrique Merino
    • , Nikolaus Rajewsky
    • , Uwe Ohler
    • , Esteban O. Mazzoni
    • , Matthias Selbach
    • , Altuna Akalin
    •  & Marina Chekulaeva
  • Research |

    Cryo-EM structures of two late-stage assembly intermediates of the human mitoribosomal large subunit reveal the timing of rRNA folding and protein incorporation during the final steps of ribosomal maturation and identify two new assembly factors.

    • Alan Brown
    • , Sorbhi Rathore
    • , Dari Kimanius
    • , Shintaro Aibara
    • , Xiao-chen Bai
    • , Joanna Rorbach
    • , Alexey Amunts
    •  & V Ramakrishnan
  • Research | | open

    Sequestering mRNA in cytoplasmic stress granules is a mechanism for translational repression. Here the authors find that p53 mRNA, present in stress granules in activated B lymphocytes, is released upon DNA damage and is translated in a CAP-independent manner.

    • Manuel D. Díaz-Muñoz
    • , Vladimir Yu. Kiselev
    • , Nicolas Le Novère
    • , Tomaz Curk
    • , Jernej Ule
    •  & Martin Turner
  • Reviews |

    tRNAs exist as diverse species, including sequence isoforms and nuclease-generated fragments, which are further functionally diversified by base modifications and various protein interactions. Perhaps unsurprisingly, tRNAs are now being implicated in various cellular processes beyond protein synthesis per se, including in stress responses, proliferation, cell fate determination and tumorigenesis.

    • Paul Schimmel
  • Research | | open

    The transcription factor Gcn4 is known to regulate yeast amino acid synthesis. Here, the authors show that Gcn4 also acts as a repressor of protein biosynthesis in a range of conditions that enhance yeast lifespan, such as ribosomal protein knockout, calorie restriction or mTOR inhibition.

    • Nitish Mittal
    • , Joao C. Guimaraes
    • , Thomas Gross
    • , Alexander Schmidt
    • , Arnau Vina-Vilaseca
    • , Danny D. Nedialkova
    • , Florian Aeschimann
    • , Sebastian A. Leidel
    • , Anne Spang
    •  & Mihaela Zavolan

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