Transforming growth factor beta

Transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) is a cytokine that is secreted by various cell types, including macrophages, and functions in cell growth, cell differentiation, apoptosis and cellular homeostasis by binding to its receptor, the TGFβ type II receptor. Multiple signalling pathways lie downstream of the receptor, including the SMAD transcription factors and cell-cycle proteins.

Latest Research and Reviews

  • Research
    | Open Access

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is associated with myofibroblast activation in the lungs and metabolic alterations. Here, the authors show that the antidiabetic drug metformin has antifibrotic effects in human-derived samples and mouse models, by modulating a number of metabolic pathways to induce lipogenic transdifferentiation of myofibroblasts.

    • Vahid Kheirollahi
    • , Roxana M. Wasnick
    • , Valentina Biasin
    • , Ana Ivonne Vazquez-Armendariz
    • , Xuran Chu
    • , Alena Moiseenko
    • , Astrid Weiss
    • , Jochen Wilhelm
    • , Jin-San Zhang
    • , Grazyna Kwapiszewska
    • , Susanne Herold
    • , Ralph T. Schermuly
    • , Bernard Mari
    • , Xiaokun Li
    • , Werner Seeger
    • , Andreas Günther
    • , Saverio Bellusci
    •  & Elie El Agha
  • Research |

    Many beneficial effects of exercise are mediated by factors secreted from the exercising muscle, so-called myokines. Here, the authors identify what might be the first exercised-induced adipokine, TGF-β2, which is secreted from subcutaneous fat in response to exercise-induced increases in serum lactate levels and has beneficial metabolic effects in mice.

    • Hirokazu Takahashi
    • , Christiano R. R. Alves
    • , Kristin I. Stanford
    • , Roeland J. W. Middelbeek
    • , Pasquale Nigro
    • , Rebecca E. Ryan
    • , Ruidan Xue
    • , Masaji Sakaguchi
    • , Matthew D. Lynes
    • , Kawai So
    • , Joram D. Mul
    • , Min-Young Lee
    • , Estelle Balan
    • , Hui Pan
    • , Jonathan M. Dreyfuss
    • , Michael F. Hirshman
    • , Mohamad Azhar
    • , Jarna C. Hannukainen
    • , Pirjo Nuutila
    • , Kari K. Kalliokoski
    • , Søren Nielsen
    • , Bente K. Pedersen
    • , C. Ronald Kahn
    • , Yu-Hua Tseng
    •  & Laurie J. Goodyear
    Nature Metabolism 1, 291-303
  • Reviews |

    Macrophages are versatile immune cells that protect the host against infection but can also promote chronic inflammation and fibrosis. In this Review, the authors discuss the diverse roles of macrophages in acute and chronic renal pathology as well as potential therapeutic targets.

    • Patrick Ming-Kuen Tang
    • , David J. Nikolic-Paterson
    •  & Hui-Yao Lan
  • Research
    | Open Access

    The PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway has been previously implicated in fibrosis and a pan-PI3K/mTOR inhibitor is currently under clinical evaluation for the treatment of IPF. Here the authors show that the mTORC1/4E-BP1 axis is critical for TGF-β1-induced fibrogenesis in in vitro and ex vivo models and that canonical PI3K/Akt signalling is dispensable.

    • Hannah V. Woodcock
    • , Jessica D. Eley
    • , Delphine Guillotin
    • , Manuela Platé
    • , Carmel B. Nanthakumar
    • , Matteo Martufi
    • , Simon Peace
    • , Gerard Joberty
    • , Daniel Poeckel
    • , Robert B. Good
    • , Adam R. Taylor
    • , Nico Zinn
    • , Matthew Redding
    • , Ellen J. Forty
    • , Robert E. Hynds
    • , Charles Swanton
    • , Morten Karsdal
    • , Toby M. Maher
    • , Giovanna Bergamini
    • , Richard P. Marshall
    • , Andy D. Blanchard
    • , Paul F. Mercer
    •  & Rachel C. Chambers

News and Comment