Surface patterning

  • Article
    | Open Access

    Electron beam lithography (EBL) is renowned to provide fabrication resolution in the deep nanometer scale but their incapability of arbitrary 3D nanofabrication poses a major limitation to the technique. Here, the authors demonstrate a manufacturing technique of functional 3d nanostructures at a resolution of sub-15 nm using voltage-regulated 3d EBL.

    • Nan Qin
    • , Zhi-Gang Qian
    •  & Tiger H. Tao
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Precise patterning of functional nanoparticles can provide a powerful tool for next-generation macroscale devices. Here, the authors report a reliable nanoprinting technique that can pattern various functional nanoparticles on the substrate with a 200 nm pitch and 10 nm position accuracy, and above the millimeter scale.

    • Xing Xing
    • , Zaiqin Man
    •  & Zhenda Lu
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Directing the position, orientation, and long-range lateral order of block copolymer domains to produce technologically-useful, sublithographic patterns is a challenge. Here, the authors present a promising approach to overcome the challenge by directing assembly using spatial boundaries between planar, low-resolution regions on a surface with different composition.

    • Robert M. Jacobberger
    • , Vikram Thapar
    •  & Michael S. Arnold
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Creating micro/nanostructures on fibers is beneficial to many fiber-based devices, which remains a challenge in large-scale fabrication due to elongation and reflow. Here, the authors demonstrate a method for generating high-resolution, arbitrarily designed surface patterns on fiber during the thermal drawing process.

    • Zhe Wang
    • , Tingting Wu
    •  & Lei Wei
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Bipolar conductivity is fundamental for electronic devices based on two-dimensional semiconductors. Here, the authors report on-demand p- and n-doping of monolayer MoS2 via defects engineering using thermochemical scanning probe lithography, and achieve a p-n junction with rectification ratio over 104.

    • Xiaorui Zheng
    • , Annalisa Calò
    •  & Elisa Riedo
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Current metalenses are far from commercialization due to fabrication cost and low throughput. Here, the authors use a UV-curable resin as a matrix for direct pattern replication by the composite and TiO2 nanoparticles to increase the refractive index of the composite, allowing dielectric metalenses to be manufactured in a single step.

    • Gwanho Yoon
    • , Kwan Kim
    •  & Junsuk Rho
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Photolithography is an established microfabrication technique but commonly uses costly shortwavelength light sources to achieve high resolution. Here the authors use metal patterns embedded in a flexible elastomer photomask with mechanical robustness for generation of subdiffraction patterns as a cost effective near-field optical printing approach.

    • Sangyoon Paik
    • , Gwangmook Kim
    •  & Wooyoung Shim
  • Article
    | Open Access

    In homoepitaxial crystal growth, four established modes describe atom deposition on a single crystal surface. Here the authors present a model that shows that, for each adatom growth mode, there exists an analogous but inverse version for vacancy growth. This also applies to combined growth.

    • Marcel J. Rost
    • , Leon Jacobse
    •  & Marc T. M. Koper
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Confidently separating the photothermal effect from the generation of energetic charge carriers and quantifying their relative contribution to chemical reactions remain a great challenge in plasmon-mediated chemical reactions. Here, authors describe a strategy based on the construction of a plasmonic electrode coupled with photoelectrochemistry to quantitatively disentangle these two effects.

    • Chao Zhan
    • , Bo-Wen Liu
    •  & Zhong-Qun Tian
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Fabrication of wafer-scale nanogratings for X-ray spectroscopy is difficult especially for very high line densities. The authors use vacancy epitaxy to fabricate sub-50-nm-periodicity gratings, coated with multilayers for efficient operation, for use in ultra-high resolution x-ray spectroscopy.

    • Qiushi Huang
    • , Qi jia
    •  & Xin Ou
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Integration of emitters for nanophotonic applications requires precise control over their position and orientation. Here, Hail et al. demonstrate the positioning of a single and a small number of oriented molecules with subwavelength accuracy bu direct non-contact electrohydrodynamic nanoprinting.

    • Claudio U. Hail
    • , Christian Höller
    •  & Hadi Eghlidi
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Bringing atomic beam technology to the chip scale is challenging due to the long distance required to filter the velocity distribution. Here, the authors report an engineering strategy for on-chip filtering of the velocity profile of atomic beams by fabricating planar, etched microchannel arrays.

    • Chao Li
    • , Xiao Chai
    •  & C. Raman
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Superhydrophobic surfaces are expected to increase streaming potential, but are hindered by the presence of air. Here the authors enhance streaming potential by flowing high-dielectric salt water over liquid-filled surfaces infiltrated with low-dielectric liquid, harnessing electric slip and surface charge.

    • B. Fan
    • , A. Bhattacharya
    •  & P. R. Bandaru
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Manipulation at the atomic scale comes with a trade-off between simplicity and thermal stability. Here, Achal et al. demonstrate improved automated hydrogen lithography and repassivation, enabling error-corrected atomic writing of large-scale structures/memories that are stable at room temperature.

    • Roshan Achal
    • , Mohammad Rashidi
    •  & Robert A. Wolkow
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Materials with switchable fluorescence possess great potential for information encryption applications, but systems where the off state is invisible are lacking. Here the authors print patterns of colourless metal organic frameworks and reversibly transform these inks into fluorescent perovskite nanocrystals

    • Congyang Zhang
    • , Bo Wang
    •  & Liang Li
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The chemistry at the interface between electrolyte and electrode plays a critical role in determining battery performance. Here, the authors show that a NaBr enriched solid–electrolyte interphase can lower the surface diffusion barrier for sodium ions, enabling stable electrodeposition.

    • Snehashis Choudhury
    • , Shuya Wei
    •  & Lynden A. Archer
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The use of metal nanostructures for surface colourization has attracted considerable interest following recent developments in plasmonics. Here, Guayet al. use a bottom-up approach where picosecond laser pulses can produce a full palette of non-iridescent colours on silver, gold, copper, and aluminium.

    • Jean-Michel Guay
    • , Antonino Calà Lesina
    •  & Arnaud Weck
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Graphene nanoribbons are promising candidates for 2D material electrical interconnects; however, the top-down fabrication of nanoribbons has remained a challenge. Here, Chenet al. have used a hexagonal boron nitride template to grow narrow, integrated graphene nanoribbons with small bandgaps.

    • Lingxiu Chen
    • , Li He
    •  & Mianheng Jiang
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Ostwald ripening is thermodynamically favoured in many liquid and gas systems, where small particles tend to dissolve into large ones. Against this effect, Huanget al. use patterned microstructures to guide the evolution of two-dimensional liquid foams as a platform for the assembly of nanoparticles.

    • Zhandong Huang
    • , Meng Su
    •  & Yanlin Song
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Materials with spatially modulated nonlinear optical properties are used for quasi-phase matching. Here, Yanet al. exploit the nonlinearity of intermolecular charge transfer states together with oblique-angle deposition to achieve nanoscale modulation of the second-order susceptibility.

    • Yixin Yan
    • , Yakun Yuan
    •  & Noel C. Giebink
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Liquid metal dealloying produces topologically complex nanoporous structures, however little is known about how they form. Here, the authors use mesoscale phase-field modeling and experiments to show that structure formation is governed by both interfacial spinodal decomposition and diffusion-coupled growth.

    • Pierre-Antoine Geslin
    • , Ian McCue
    •  & Alain Karma
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The demonstration of visible frequency metasurfaces with broadband optical response is challenging due to plasmonic losses and non-uniform nanofabrication. Here, Wenet al. demonstrate a helicity multiplexed metasurface hologram capable of achieving high efficiency and image quality in the visible and near infrared.

    • Dandan Wen
    • , Fuyong Yue
    •  & Xianzhong Chen
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Cooling hot surfaces by boiling water is widely practiced, but the amount of heat transfer is normally constrained by vapour layer formation at sufficiently high temperatures. Here, the authors report the maximum in the critical heat flux on textured hydrophilic surfaces at an intermediate texture density.

    • Navdeep Singh Dhillon
    • , Jacopo Buongiorno
    •  & Kripa K. Varanasi
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Plasmonic nanostructures are a promising alternative to conventional pixels, where their characteristics at the nanoscale offer many benefits. Franklin et al. combine plasmonic surfaces with liquid crystals to create voltage-tunable polarization-independent color pixels for reflective displays.

    • Daniel Franklin
    • , Yuan Chen
    •  & Debashis Chanda
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Electron-beam lithography is often used for patterning of asymmetric metal electrodes for nanoscale devices, but suffers from several limitations. Here, the authors report a new adhesion lithography process, which allows for high-throughput and simple fabrication of nanogap metal electrodes.

    • David J. Beesley
    • , James Semple
    •  & John C. deMello
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The sensitivity and selectivity of graphene-based biosensors depends on attaching various functional groups to graphene. Hirtz et al. use dip-pen nanolithography to directly write phospholipid membranes on graphene, which enables multiplexed and heterogeneous non-covalent functionalization.

    • Michael Hirtz
    • , Antonios Oikonomou
    •  & Aravind Vijayaraghavan
  • Article |

    The use of III-V semiconductor nanowires can overcome the need for lattice matching in multi-junction solar cells, which restricts the choice of materials and their bandgaps. This work demonstrates efficient solar cells with GaAsP single nanowires with tunable bandgap and grown on low-cost Si substrates.

    • Jeppe V. Holm
    • , Henrik I. Jørgensen
    •  & Martin Aagesen