Scientific community and society

  • Article |

    A sparsified SYK model is constructed using learning techniques and the corresponding traversable wormhole dynamics are observed, representing a step towards a program for studying quantum gravity in the laboratory.

    • Daniel Jafferis
    • , Alexander Zlokapa
    •  & Maria Spiropulu
  • Article |

    Genetic analyses of teosinte, the wild ancestor of maize, identify a locus (THP9) that is associated with high seed protein content and increased nitrogen-use efficiency, suggesting that THP9 could have applications in crop breeding.

    • Yongcai Huang
    • , Haihai Wang
    •  & Yongrui Wu
  • Article
    | Open Access

    A diverse, multidisciplinary panel of 386 experts in COVID-19 response from 112 countries provides health and social policy actions to address inadequacies in the pandemic response and help to bring this public health threat to an end.

    • Jeffrey V. Lazarus
    • , Diana Romero
    •  & Anne Øvrehus
  • Perspective |

    The unquantified, poorly understood and uncertain risks of climate change in economic valuations are identified and classified, and an integrated approach is proposed to include these missing risks in future valuations and decision-making processes.

    • James Rising
    • , Marco Tedesco
    •  & David A. Stainforth
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Genetic data for 13 Neanderthals from 2 Middle Palaeolithic sites in the Altai Mountains of southern Siberia presented provide insights into the social organization of an isolated Neanderthal community at the easternmost extent of their known range.

    • Laurits Skov
    • , Stéphane Peyrégne
    •  & Benjamin M. Peter
  • Article
    | Open Access

    An analysis of the academic employment and doctoral education of faculty members at all PhD-granting US universities from 2011 to 2020 shows that a small minority of universities (20.4%) supply a large majority of faculty members (80.0%).

    • K. Hunter Wapman
    • , Sam Zhang
    •  & Daniel B. Larremore
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Archaeogenetic study of ancient DNA from medieval northwestern Europeans reveals substantial increase of continental northern European ancestry in Britain, suggesting mass migration across the North Sea during the Early Middle Ages.

    • Joscha Gretzinger
    • , Duncan Sayer
    •  & Stephan Schiffels
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Around 31,000 years ago, a young individual from Borneo had part of their left lower leg surgically amputated, probably as a child, and lived for another 6–9 years after amputation.

    • Tim Ryan Maloney
    • , India Ella Dilkes-Hall
    •  & Maxime Aubert
  • Article
    | Open Access

    A molecular taxonomy for prostate cancer reveals a subtype associated with copy-number loss found in African and European populations that predicts poor outcomes and two subtypes—one associated with high mutational noise and one with copy-number gain—specific to African populations.

    • Weerachai Jaratlerdsiri
    • , Jue Jiang
    •  & Vanessa M. Hayes
  • Article |

    A dynamic optimization approach using plant species data from 458 forest ecoregions suggests a strategy for when and where to conserve forests globally over the next 50 years to maximize the conservation of plant biodiversity.

    • Ian H. Luby
    • , Steve J. Miller
    •  & Stephen Polasky
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Social disconnection across socioeconomic lines is explained by both differences in exposure to people with high socioeconomic status and friending bias—the tendency for people to befriend peers with similar socioeconomic status even conditional on exposure.

    • Raj Chetty
    • , Matthew O. Jackson
    •  & Nils Wernerfelt
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The difference between the number of men and women listed as authors on scientific papers and inventors on patents is at least partly attributable to unacknowledged contributions by women scientists.

    • Matthew B. Ross
    • , Britta M. Glennon
    •  & Julia I. Lane
  • Article
    | Open Access

    High-quality diploid assemblies of potato genomes from 24 wild and 20 cultivated potatoes provide insights into the complex evolution and diversity of potatoes, and could have applications in the breeding of hybrid potatoes.

    • Dié Tang
    • , Yuxin Jia
    •  & Sanwen Huang
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Two remarkably large sites in southwest Amazonia, belonging to the Casarabe culture, include complex civic-ceremonial architecture and large water-management infrastructure, representing a type of tropical low-density urbanism that has not previously been described in Amazonia.

    • Heiko Prümers
    • , Carla Jaimes Betancourt
    •  & Martin Schaich
  • Perspective |

    Standards and recommendations for transitioning organizations to quantum-secure cryptographic protocols are outlined, including a discussion of transition timelines and the leading strategies to protect systems against quantum attacks.

    • David Joseph
    • , Rafael Misoczki
    •  & Royal Hansen
  • Article |

    Replacing 20% of per-capita ruminant consumption with microbial protein can offset future increases in global pasture area, cut annual deforestation and related CO2 emissions in half, and lower methane emissions.

    • Florian Humpenöder
    • , Benjamin Leon Bodirsky
    •  & Alexander Popp
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Ithaca—a deep neural network for textual restoration, geographical attribution and dating of ancient Greek inscriptions—collaboratively aids historians’ study of damaged texts.

    • Yannis Assael
    • , Thea Sommerschield
    •  & Nando de Freitas
  • Article |

    When people learn more about a stranger, they think a stranger knows more about them, and when tested in a field experiment, this shifted residents’ perceptions of police officers’ knowledge of illegal activity.

    • Anuj K. Shah
    •  & Michael LaForest
  • Article
    | Open Access

    DNA analysis of 6 individuals from eastern and south-central Africa spanning the past approximately 18,000 years, and of 28 previously published ancient individuals, provides genetic evidence supporting hypotheses of increasing regionalization at the end of the Pleistocene.

    • Mark Lipson
    • , Elizabeth A. Sawchuk
    •  & Mary E. Prendergast
  • Article |

    Tamlo-R32, an engineered wheat mutant allele of the Mildew resistance locus O (MLO) gene, confers resistance to powdery mildew, retains robust wheat growth, and can be transferred to other agriculturally important wheat varieties.

    • Shengnan Li
    • , Dexing Lin
    •  & Caixia Gao
  • Article |

    A global assessment shows that increases in the number of wet days and extreme daily rainfall adversely affect economic growth, particularly in high-income nations and via the services and manufacturing sectors.

    • Maximilian Kotz
    • , Anders Levermann
    •  & Leonie Wenz
  • Article |

    Disturbances in the radiocarbon record anchor a precisely dated archaeological stratigraphy of a medieval trading emporium in Denmark in time, revealing that the Viking expansion was associated with competition for trade routes rather than with raids.

    • Bente Philippsen
    • , Claus Feveile
    •  & Søren M. Sindbæk
  • Article |

    A massive field study whereby many different treatments are tested synchronously in one large sample using a common objectively measured outcome, termed a megastudy, was performed to examine the ability of interventions to increase gym attendance by American adults.

    • Katherine L. Milkman
    • , Dena Gromet
    •  & Angela L. Duckworth
  • Article |

    An analysis of three surveys of COVID-19 vaccine behaviour shows that larger surveys overconfidently overestimated vaccine uptake, a demonstration of how larger sample sizes can paradoxically lead to less accurate estimates.

    • Valerie C. Bradley
    • , Shiro Kuriwaki
    •  & Seth Flaxman
  • Article |

    Data collected from crisis helplines during the COVID-19 pandemic show that pandemic-related issues replaced rather than exacerbated underlying anxieties, and demonstrate that helpline data are useful indicators of public mental health.

    • Marius Brülhart
    • , Valentin Klotzbücher
    •  & Stephanie K. Reich
  • Article |

    Using global data, econometrics and climate science to estimate the damages induced by the emission of one ton of carbon dioxide, climate change is projected to increase electricity spending but reduce overall end-use energy expenditure.

    • Ashwin Rode
    • , Tamma Carleton
    •  & Jiacan Yuan
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Principles from the field of fair division are used to develop selection algorithms for citizens’ assemblies that produce panels that are representative of the population while simultaneously selecting individuals with near-equal probabilities.

    • Bailey Flanigan
    • , Paul Gölz
    •  & Ariel D. Procaccia
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Two randomized controlled trials demonstrate the ability of text-based behavioural ‘nudges’ to improve the uptake of COVID-19 vaccines, especially when designed to make participants feel ownership over their vaccine dose.

    • Hengchen Dai
    • , Silvia Saccardo
    •  & Daniel M. Croymans
  • Article |

    To enable net-negative CO2 emissions, the repayment of previously accrued carbon debt by establishing the responsibility for the net removal of CO2 by carbon-emitting parties through carbon removal obligations is necessary.

    • Johannes Bednar
    • , Michael Obersteiner
    •  & Jim W. Hall