Risk factors articles within Nature


  • Article
    | Open Access

    The global population is increasingly exposed to daily landscape fire-sourced air pollution but there are socioeconomic disparities, with this pollution four times higher in low-income countries than in high-income countries during the period 2000–2019.

    • Rongbin Xu
    • , Tingting Ye
    •  & Shanshan Li
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Analysis of data from 33 longitudinal cohorts from low- and middle-income countries indicates that conditions during pre-conception, pregnancy and the first few months of life are crucial in determining the risk of growth faltering in young children.

    • Andrew Mertens
    • , Jade Benjamin-Chung
    •  & Pablo Penataro Yori
  • Article
    | Open Access

    An analysis of longitudinal cohort data across diverse populations suggests that the incidence of wasting between birth and 24 months is higher than previously thought, and highlights the role of seasonal factors that affect child growth.

    • Andrew Mertens
    • , Jade Benjamin-Chung
    •  & Pablo Penataro Yori
  • Article |

    Combination of epidemiology, preclinical models and ultradeep DNA profiling of clinical cohorts unpicks the inflammatory mechanism by which air pollution promotes lung cancer

    • William Hill
    • , Emilia L. Lim
    •  & Charles Swanton
  • Article
    | Open Access

    An analysis of biobank data from the FinnGen project examines dosage effects of genetic variants on disease, andidentifies a benefit when considering more complex inheritance in the genetics of common as well as Mendelian diseases.

    • H. O. Heyne
    • , J. Karjalainen
    •  & M. J. Daly
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Haematopoiesis has high clonal diversity up to about 65 years of age, after which diversity drops precipitously owing to positive selection acting on a handful of clones that expand exponentially throughout adulthood.

    • Emily Mitchell
    • , Michael Spencer Chapman
    •  & Peter J. Campbell
  • Article |

    A genome-wide association meta-analysis study of blood lipid levels in roughly 1.6 million individuals demonstrates the gain of power attained when diverse ancestries are included to improve fine-mapping and polygenic score generation, with gains in locus discovery related to sample size.

    • Sarah E. Graham
    • , Shoa L. Clarke
    •  & Cristen J. Willer
  • Article |

    Data on the nutrient content of almost 3,000 aquatic animal-source foods is combined with a food-systems model to show that an increase in aquatic-food production could reduce the inadequate intake of most nutrients.

    • Christopher D. Golden
    • , J. Zachary Koehn
    •  & Shakuntala H. Thilsted
  • Article |

    Analysis of community-tested cases of SARS-CoV-2 indicates that the B.1.1.7 variant is not only more transmissible than pre-existing variants, but may also cause more severe illness, and is associated with a higher risk of death.

    • Nicholas G. Davies
    • , Christopher I. Jarvis
    •  & Ruth H. Keogh
  • Article |

    Observations and air-quality modelling reveal that the sources of particulate matter and oxidative potential in Europe are different, implying that reducing mass concentrations of particulate matter alone may not reduce oxidative potential.

    • Kaspar R. Daellenbach
    • , Gaëlle Uzu
    •  & André S. H. Prévôt
  • Article
    | Open Access

    From 1980 to 2018, the levels of total and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased in low- and middle-income countries, especially in east and southeast Asia, and decreased in high-income western countries, especially those in northwestern Europe, and in central and eastern Europe.

    • Cristina Taddei
    • , Bin Zhou
    •  & Majid Ezzati
  • Article |

    Aerodynamic analysis of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in two hospitals in Wuhan indicates that SARS-CoV-2 may have the potential to be transmitted through aerosols, although the infectivity of the virus RNA was not established in this study.

    • Yuan Liu
    • , Zhi Ning
    •  & Ke Lan
  • Article
    | Open Access

    High-resolution subnational mapping of child growth failure indicators for 105 low- and middle-income countries between 2000 and 2017 shows that, despite considerable progress, substantial geographical inequalities still exist in some countries.

    • Damaris K. Kinyoki
    • , Aaron E. Osgood-Zimmerman
    •  & Simon I. Hay
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Analyses of the proportions of individuals who have completed key levels of schooling across all low- and middle-income countries from 2000 to 2017 reveal inequalities across countries as well as within populations.

    • Nicholas Graetz
    • , Lauren Woyczynski
    •  & Simon I. Hay
  • Article
    | Open Access

    A US national experiment showed that a short, online, self-administered growth mindset intervention can increase adolescents’ grades and advanced course-taking, and identified the types of school that were poised to benefit the most.

    • David S. Yeager
    • , Paul Hanselman
    •  & Carol S. Dweck
  • Letter
    | Open Access

    The prevalence of improved housing (with improved drinking water and sanitation, sufficient living area and durable construction) in urban and rural sub-Saharan Africa doubled between 2000 and 2015.

    • Lucy S. Tusting
    • , Donal Bisanzio
    •  & Samir Bhatt
  • Article |

    The authors systematically characterize structural variation in the genomes of gut microbiota and show that they are associated with bacterial fitness and with host risk factors, and that examining genes coded in these regions facilitates investigation of mechanisms that may underlie these associations.

    • David Zeevi
    • , Tal Korem
    •  & Eran Segal
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Geospatial estimates of child growth failure in Africa provide a baseline for measuring progress and a precision public health platform to target interventions to those populations with the greatest need.

    • Aaron Osgood-Zimmerman
    • , Anoushka I. Millear
    •  & Simon I. Hay
  • Analysis
    | Open Access

    Investing in adolescents as the parents of the next generation is important for the wellbeing of current and future generations.

    • George C. Patton
    • , Craig A. Olsson
    •  & Susan M. Sawyer
  • Brief Communications Arising |

    • Song Wu
    • , Wei Zhu
    •  & Yusuf A. Hannun
  • Letter |

    The cysteine protease CPR-4, a cathepsin B homologue, is identified as a radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) factor in nematodes in response to ultraviolet or ionizing radiation, and causes inhibition of cell death and increased embryonic lethality.

    • Yu Peng
    • , Man Zhang
    •  & Ding Xue
  • Brief Communications Arising |

    • Xiao Dong
    • , Brandon Milholland
    •  & Jan Vijg
  • Letter |

    Analysis of a comprehensive database of mammalian host–virus relationships reveals that both the total number of viruses that infect a given species and the proportion likely to be zoonotic are predictable and that this enables identification of mammalian species and geographic locations where novel zoonoses are likely to be found.

    • Kevin J. Olival
    • , Parviez R. Hosseini
    •  & Peter Daszak
  • Review Article |

    A review into the complex effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol on the dopamine system, examining data from animal and human studies and discussing the necessary future direction of research.

    • Michael A. P. Bloomfield
    • , Abhishekh H. Ashok
    •  & Oliver D. Howes
  • Letter |

    Entertaining movies addressing both individual values and marriageability can provide a way to change cultural attitudes towards female genital cutting within certain cultures.

    • Sonja Vogt
    • , Nadia Ahmed Mohmmed Zaid
    •  & Charles Efferson
  • Brief Communication |

    • John Collinge
    • , Zane Jaunmuktane
    •  & Sebastian Brandner
  • Letter |

    Growing evidence from metagenome-wide association studies link multiple common disorders to microbial dysbiosis but effects of drug treatment are often not accounted for; here, the authors re-analyse two previous metagenomic studies of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients together with a novel cohort to determine the effects of the widely prescribed antidiabetic drug metformin and highlight the need to distinguish the effects of a disease from the effects of treatment on the gut microbiota.

    • Kristoffer Forslund
    • , Falk Hildebrand
    •  & Oluf Pedersen
  • Letter |

    Increased maternal age is known to increase the risk of congenital heart disease in offspring; here, this link is investigated by transplanting ovaries between young and old mice, revealing that the maternal-age-associated risk is independent of the age of the ovaries but depends on the age of the mother, and that this risk can be mitigated by maternal genetic background or exercise.

    • Claire E. Schulkey
    • , Suk D. Regmi
    •  & Patrick Y. Jay
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The African Genome Variation Project contains the whole-genome sequences of 320 individuals and dense genotypes on 1,481 individuals from sub-Saharan Africa; it enables the design and interpretation of genomic studies, with implications for finding disease loci and clues to human origins.

    • Deepti Gurdasani
    • , Tommy Carstensen
    •  & Manjinder S. Sandhu