Regeneration

  • Article
    | Open Access

    The recovery of function upon acute kidney injury is thought to involve tubular cell dedifferentiation and proliferation. Here the authors show that Pax2+ progenitors regenerate tubules via cell division while other tubular cells support function recovery by undergoing hypertrophy through endoreplication.

    • Elena Lazzeri
    • , Maria Lucia Angelotti
    •  & Paola Romagnani
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The authors have previously shown that membrane voltage can influence embryonic patterning during development. Here, the authors computationally model how nicotine disrupts Xenopus embryogenesis by perturbing voltage gradients, and rescue nicotine-inducted defects with HCN2 channel expression.

    • Vaibhav P. Pai
    • , Alexis Pietak
    •  & Michael Levin
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The periosteum, a tissue lining the bone surface, and the bone marrow are known to contain bone-forming cells. Here the authors show that skeletal stem cells reside in the mouse periosteum, and that periosteal cells have common embryonic origins with bone marrow stromal/stem cells (BMSCs), but are better at bone repair and long-term integration than BMSCs.

    • Oriane Duchamp de Lageneste
    • , Anaïs Julien
    •  & Céline Colnot
  • Article
    | Open Access

    It is not clear if it is the embryonic origin or anatomical location of cardiomyocytes that restrict their contribution to zebrafish heart regeneration. Here, the authors show a plasticity of embryonic precursors following tbx5a fate mapping and that trabecular cardiomyocytes help to rebuild the cortical myocardium.

    • Héctor Sánchez-Iranzo
    • , María Galardi-Castilla
    •  & Nadia Mercader
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Regeneration capable flatworms have emerged as powerful models for studying stem cell biology and patterning, however their study has been hindered by the lack of transgenesis methods. Here, the authors describe a transgenesis method for Macrostomum lignano, as well as a new annotated genome sequence.

    • Jakub Wudarski
    • , Daniil Simanov
    •  & Eugene Berezikov
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Organ regeneration by transplantation of ESC/iPSC-derived tissues is a promising but still challenging approach. Here Lin et al. show that liver damage caused by a chemical insult induces not only fibrosis but also Lgr5+ cell expansion that can be further promoted by treatment with HGF/R-spondin1.

    • Yuan Lin
    • , Zhe-Ping Fang
    •  & Wei-Jie Zhou
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Wound healing is essential to repair the skin after injury and distinct stem cells in the epidermis are known to contribute to the process. Here the authors perform molecular, functional and clonal analysis and reveal the individual contribution of stem cells coming from different epidermal compartments to the wound-healing process in mice.

    • Mariaceleste Aragona
    • , Sophie Dekoninck
    •  & Cédric Blanpain
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Salamanders are unique among extant tetrapods for their ability to completely regenerate their limbs. Here, Nogueira and colleagues show that lungfishes, the sister clade of tetrapods, regenerate their fins using analogous gene regulatory changes and morphological steps.

    • Acacio F. Nogueira
    • , Carinne M. Costa
    •  & Igor Schneider
  • Article
    | Open Access

    A potentially superior tissue regenerative strategy to stem cell transplantation is modulation of endogenous stem cells. Here the authors show fibrocartilage stem cells exist in the temporomandibular joint that contribute to cartilage regeneration and can be manipulated to enhance regeneration through canonical Wnt signalling.

    • Mildred C. Embree
    • , Mo Chen
    •  & Jeremy J. Mao
  • Article
    | Open Access

    It is unclear whether there is a progenitor/stem cell in the basal layer of the urothelium in the bladder. Here, the authors identify Keratin14 positive cells that can regenerate the bladder in both a natural and injury-induced manner, and following neoplastic transformation, can give rise to tumours.

    • George Papafotiou
    • , Varvara Paraskevopoulou
    •  & Apostolos Klinakis
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The extent to which mammals and other vertebrates share similar mechanisms of tissue regeneration is unclear. Here, the authors use an ear punch assay in spiny mice, which regenerate fully, to show blastema formation and mesenchymal cell proliferation as cell cycle regulators p21 and p27 remain cytoplasmic.

    • Thomas R. Gawriluk
    • , Jennifer Simkin
    •  & Ashley W. Seifert
  • Article
    | Open Access

    How limb regeneration in the newt is regulated at a cellular level is much debated. Here, the authors show different mechanisms acting at different developmental stages, namely stem/progenitor cells in larval regeneration and muscle fibres in the blastema regulate limb regeneration after metamorphosis.

    • Hibiki Vincent Tanaka
    • , Nathaniel Chuen Yin Ng
    •  & Chikafumi Chiba
  • Article
    | Open Access

    TLR and IL-1R1 ligands are danger signals released following tissue injury and during the healing response. Here, the authors show that IL-1β signalling via IL-1R1/MyD88 inhibits the Akt/GSK-3β/β-catenin pathway in mesenchymal stem cells, which suppresses their mobilization, proliferation, and differentiation into osteoblasts, processes necessary for bone regeneration.

    • Mikaël M. Martino
    • , Kenta Maruyama
    •  & Shizuo Akira
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The suture mesenchyme has been postulated to act as the niche for stem cells for calvarial bones but the identity of the stem cells is unknown. Here, Maruyama et al.suggest that Axin2 expressing cells act as stem cells not only in craniofacial bone development and homeostasis but in injury-induced repair.

    • Takamitsu Maruyama
    • , Jaeim Jeong
    •  & Wei Hsu
  • Article |

    In response to injury, satellite cells (SCs) asymmetrically divide to self-renew and repair muscle. Here the authors show that a cytokine G-CSF is crucial for long-term expansion of activated SCs and muscle regeneration in mice, suggesting that G-CSF treatment may have beneficial effect in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    • Nozomi Hayashiji
    • , Shinsuke Yuasa
    •  & Keiichi Fukuda
  • Article |

    Alveoli are the lung’s functional units composed of two major epithelial cell types, type I and type II. Type II cells are adult lung stem cells, but this study shows that differentiated Type I cells can also self-renew and give rise to Type II cells, revealing a bidirectional relationship between lung epithelial cell types.

    • Rajan Jain
    • , Christina E. Barkauskas
    •  & Jonathan A. Epstein
  • Article |

    The balancing apparatus of the inner ear relies on the mechanosensory activity of hair cells (HC), which are poorly regenerated upon loss in adult mammals. Here, the authors show that in newborn mice HC regenerate through proliferation and transdifferentiation of activated striolar supporting cells that express Lgr5.

    • Tian Wang
    • , Renjie Chai
    •  & Alan G. Cheng
  • Article |

    The age-related decline in the regenerative capacity of muscle can be reversed in mice by exposure to young circulation. Elabd et al.identify the hormone, oxytocin, as a potential mediator of this effect, showing that its plasma levels decline with age and that administration of oxytocin to aged mice improves muscle regeneration.

    • Christian Elabd
    • , Wendy Cousin
    •  & Irina M. Conboy
  • Article |

    The re-epithelialization phase in skin wound repair involves epidermal cell migration into the wound, proliferation and differentiation. Here the authors describe a role for the transcription factor Tcf3 and its target, the secreted factor lipocalin2, in cell migration during wound healing in mice.

    • Qi Miao
    • , Amy T. Ku
    •  & Hoang Nguyen
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The murine epicardium forms an envelope around the heart and contains cells that can participate in cardiac repair. Here the authors discover a population of epicardial cells derived from blood cells, which proliferate and change their surrounding extracellular matrix in response to cardiac injury.

    • Gemma M. Balmer
    • , Sveva Bollini
    •  & Paul R. Riley
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Components of the complement system have been shown to promote liver regeneration. Haynes et al. demonstrate that the complement fragment C3a can induce regeneration of the embryonic chick retina from stem and progenitor cells of the ciliary margin via activation of STAT3 and other downstream signalling pathways.

    • Tracy Haynes
    • , Agustin Luz-Madrigal
    •  & Katia Del Rio-Tsonis
  • Article |

    Satellite cells have important roles in homeostasis and regeneration of skeletal muscles. Urciuolo et al. show that the extracellular matrix protein collagen VI is required for preserving satellite cell self-renewal and muscle regeneration in vitro and in vivoby modulating muscle mechanical properties.

    • Anna Urciuolo
    • , Marco Quarta
    •  & Paolo Bonaldo
  • Article |

    Osteoblasts and endothelial cells have important roles in bone regeneration. Kim and colleagues identify the protein DJ-1 as an angiogenic and osteogenic signalling molecule involved in the cross-talk between these cells and show that DJ-1 promotes bone regeneration and fracture healing in mice.

    • Jung-Min Kim
    • , Hong-In Shin
    •  & Pann-Ghill Suh
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Membrane repair of myocytes is important to prevent such disease as muscular dystrophy but the properties of this repair are not well characterised. In this study, vitamin E is shown to be important in the repair of myocyte cell membranes in cultured cells and in intact muscle.

    • Amber C. Howard
    • , Anna K. McNeil
    •  & Paul L. McNeil
  • Article |

    The fusion of satellite cells to muscle fibres during adult life is required for both muscle growth and regeneration but it is unknown whether non-muscle cells contribute to this process. Now, Dellavalle and colleagues show that pericytes, cells associated with the vasculature can contribute to both growth and regeneration of muscle fibres.

    • A. Dellavalle
    • , G. Maroli
    •  & G. Cossu
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Tissue regeneration is of great interest; however the number of times a given tissue can regenerate is unknown. Now, Eguchiet al. demonstrate that the lens of the Japanese newt—Cynops pyrrhogaster—can regenerate 18 times over a 16-year period, and that the new lenses are similar to those of control adult animals.

    • Goro Eguchi
    • , Yukiko Eguchi
    •  & Panagiotis A. Tsonis