Physical sciences

  • Article | | open

    The resolution limitations when using the ubiquitous algorithms that process images obtained using modern techniques are not straightforward to define. Here, the authors examine the performance of localization algorithms and use spatial statistics to provide a metric for assessing the resolution limit of such algorithms.

    • Edward A. K. Cohen
    • , Anish V. Abraham
    • , Sreevidhya Ramakrishnan
    •  & Raimund J. Ober
  • Article | | open

    Simple, fast, and accurate detection of food freshness has great significance to food safety and business. Here, the authors develop cellulose-based ratiometric fluorescent materials with superior amine-response, which can be used for visual monitoring the freshness of shrimp and crab.

    • Ruonan Jia
    • , Weiguo Tian
    • , Haotian Bai
    • , Jinming Zhang
    • , Shu Wang
    •  & Jun Zhang
  • Article | | open

    Molecular motion has attracted a wide range of interest for different applications. Here, the authors develop nanoparticles with internal molecular motion upon near infrared absorption and use the nanoparticles for photoacoustic imaging and demonstrate this application in vivo.

    • Zheng Zhao
    • , Chao Chen
    • , Wenting Wu
    • , Fenfen Wang
    • , Lili Du
    • , Xiaoyan Zhang
    • , Yu Xiong
    • , Xuewen He
    • , Yuanjing Cai
    • , Ryan T. K. Kwok
    • , Jacky W. Y. Lam
    • , Xike Gao
    • , Pingchuan Sun
    • , David Lee Phillips
    • , Dan Ding
    •  & Ben Zhong Tang
  • Article | | open

    Membrane elongation is fundamental to autophagy and is controlled by an ubiquitin-conjugating cascade orchestrated by ATG16L1. Here, the authors identify that the E3 ligase Gigaxonin regulates autophagosome formation by controlling ATG16L1 turnover.

    • Aurora Scrivo
    • , Patrice Codogno
    •  & Pascale Bomont
  • Article | | open

    Large-scale deletions of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) are associated with different human mitochondrial diseases and normal human ageing. Here the authors present a model for mtDNA formation based on generation sequencing analysis of patients samples and in vitro reconstituted mtDNA deletion using purified proteins.

    • Örjan Persson
    • , Yazh Muthukumar
    • , Swaraj Basu
    • , Louise Jenninger
    • , Jay P. Uhler
    • , Anna-Karin Berglund
    • , Robert McFarland
    • , Robert W. Taylor
    • , Claes M. Gustafsson
    • , Erik Larsson
    •  & Maria Falkenberg
  • Article | | open

    Wide application of quantum dot light emitting diodes (QLED) in display technology is hindered by the poor lifetime of the blue QLEDs. Here, the degradation mechanism is shown to originate from space charge accumulation in the electron-transporting layer enabling improvements in blue QLED lifetimes.

    • Song Chen
    • , Weiran Cao
    • , Taili Liu
    • , Sai-Wing Tsang
    • , Yixing Yang
    • , Xiaolin Yan
    •  & Lei Qian
  • Article | | open

    The photofixation and utilization of CO2 is considered to be a clean and green way to produce high-value-added commodity chemicals, but production of long chain chemicals through this process remains a challenge. Here, the authors develop a practical way for the photofixation of CO2 to long-chain chemicals via defect engineering.

    • Shichuan Chen
    • , Hui Wang
    • , Zhixiong Kang
    • , Sen Jin
    • , Xiaodong Zhang
    • , Xusheng Zheng
    • , Zeming Qi
    • , Junfa Zhu
    • , Bicai Pan
    •  & Yi Xie
  • Article | | open

    Investigation of a reaction scope usually starts with the optimization for a model substrate. Here, the authors apply a time-efficient multi-substrate screening approach to identify a general organocatalyst for the Diels–Alder reaction of cyclopentadiene with α,β-unsaturated aldehydes.

    • Hyejin Kim
    • , Gabriela Gerosa
    • , Jonas Aronow
    • , Pinar Kasaplar
    • , Jie Ouyang
    • , Julia B. Lingnau
    • , Paul Guerry
    • , Christophe Farès
    •  & Benjamin List
  • Article | | open

    The mechanism of enhanced superconducting transition temperature (Tc) at the FeSe/SrTiO3 interface remains enigmatic. Here, Song and Yu et al. reveal the evidence of cooperation between intrinsic pairing interaction in FeSe and interfacial electron–phonon coupling to enhance the Tc at the FeSe/SrTiO3 interface.

    • Q. Song
    • , T. L. Yu
    • , X. Lou
    • , B. P. Xie
    • , H. C. Xu
    • , C. H. P. Wen
    • , Q. Yao
    • , S. Y. Zhang
    • , X. T. Zhu
    • , J. D. Guo
    • , R. Peng
    •  & D. L. Feng
  • Article | | open

    Heavy-fermion materials have unusual electronic behavior due to a dual localized-itinerant character of 4f electrons. Here, by studying divalent EuRh2Si2, the authors gain insight into the electronic states of the trivalent heavy fermion system YbRh2Si2 and show that it experimentally demonstrates Luttinger’s theorem.

    • M. Güttler
    • , A. Generalov
    • , S. I. Fujimori
    • , K. Kummer
    • , A. Chikina
    • , S. Seiro
    • , S. Danzenbächer
    • , Yu. M. Koroteev
    • , E. V. Chulkov
    • , M. Radovic
    • , M. Shi
    • , N. C. Plumb
    • , C. Laubschat
    • , J. W. Allen
    • , C. Krellner
    • , C. Geibel
    •  & D. V. Vyalikh
  • Article | | open

    Defect tolerance is important in order to ensure the mechanical integrity of synthetic materials and biological tissues. Here the authors demonstrate that toughening mechanisms provide soft collagenous tissues with high defect tolerance, with important implications for biomedical applications.

    • Kevin Bircher
    • , Manuel Zündel
    • , Marco Pensalfini
    • , Alexander E. Ehret
    •  & Edoardo Mazza
  • Article | | open

    SecB homologs can be associated with stress-responsive type II toxin–antitoxin (TA) systems and form tripartite toxin-antitoxin-chaperone systems (TAC). Here the authors provide structural insights into TACs by presenting the crystal structure of the M. tuberculosis TA-associated SecB chaperone in complex with the C-terminal ChAD (chaperone addiction) extension of the antitoxin HigA1.

    • Valérie Guillet
    • , Patricia Bordes
    • , Cécile Bon
    • , Julien Marcoux
    • , Virginie Gervais
    • , Ambre Julie Sala
    • , Suzana Dos Reis
    • , Nawel Slama
    • , Israel Mares-Mejía
    • , Anne-Marie Cirinesi
    • , Laurent Maveyraud
    • , Pierre Genevaux
    •  & Lionel Mourey
  • Article | | open

    Serine/threonine phosphatases such as PP1 associate with a large array of subunit proteins, such as ASPP (apoptosis-stimulating protein of p53) to achieve selective targeting. Here authors solved the crystal structure of the human ASPP2/PP1 complex and explain how ASPP2 can distinguish between PP1 isoforms.

    • M. Teresa Bertran
    • , Stéphane Mouilleron
    • , Yanxiang Zhou
    • , Rakhi Bajaj
    • , Federico Uliana
    • , Ganesan Senthil Kumar
    • , Audrey van Drogen
    • , Rebecca Lee
    • , Jennifer J. Banerjee
    • , Simon Hauri
    • , Nicola O’Reilly
    • , Matthias Gstaiger
    • , Rebecca Page
    • , Wolfgang Peti
    •  & Nicolas Tapon
  • Article | | open

    Phyllosilicate minerals are critical components of seismogenic fault, shear and subduction zones. Here, the authors provide a new deformation mechanism for phyllosilicates, based on newly discovered crystallographic defects in biotite (ripplocations), affecting our understanding of fault zone processes.

    • Joe Aslin
    • , Elisabetta Mariani
    • , Karl Dawson
    •  & Michel W. Barsoum
  • Article | | open

    The amount of carbon stored in closed hidden reservoirs is unknown. Here the authors use a computational approach to study the evolution of carbon species and observe polymerization of carbon atoms at high pressures, illustrating the potential for a significant carbon reservoir in the Earth’s deep interior.

    • Natalia V. Solomatova
    • , Razvan Caracas
    •  & Craig E. Manning
  • Article | | open

    The fusion peptide (FP) of HIV envelope (Env) is critical in the cell entry process. Here, Kumar et al. present crystal structures of B41 SOSIP.664 Env trimer and show the dynamic nature of the FP and proximal region, which likely relates to conformational rearrangements required for membrane fusion.

    • Sonu Kumar
    • , Anita Sarkar
    • , Pavel Pugach
    • , Rogier W. Sanders
    • , John P. Moore
    • , Andrew B. Ward
    •  & Ian A. Wilson
  • Article | | open

    Objects with varied mechanical properties can be produced by additive manufacturing, but multimaterial control along all three axes of printing is still limited. Here the authors use wavelength control during vat polymerization and demonstrate printing of objects with spatial control of the composition and stiffness.

    • J. J. Schwartz
    •  & A. J. Boydston
  • Article | | open

    Organic cocrystals have interesting properties owing to synergistic effects of the individual components but development of effective growth methods for molecular cocrystals is still in its primary stage. Here the authors demonstrate a sublimation method which allows growing organic cocrystals with controlled morphology.

    • Xin Ye
    • , Yang Liu
    • , Qing Guo
    • , Quanxiang Han
    • , Chao Ge
    • , Shuangyue Cui
    • , Leilei Zhang
    •  & Xutang Tao
  • Article | | open

    Perylenediimide (PDI) radical anions show promise as photothermal agents for phototherapy, but are typically very unstable. Here the authors fabricate a PDI-based metal-organic framework where the PDI units become stable radical anions upon incorporation of amine vapors.

    • Baozhong Lü
    • , Yifa Chen
    • , Pengyu Li
    • , Bo Wang
    • , Klaus Müllen
    •  & Meizhen Yin
  • Article | | open

    Rydberg atoms can be created from photoexcitation of molecules using intense ultrafast laser pulses. Here the authors use a coincidence detection of electrons, ion and excited Rydberg atoms and their energy sharing to reveal the general mechanism of Rydberg state excitation in a dissociating H2 molecule.

    • Wenbin Zhang
    • , Xiaochun Gong
    • , Hui Li
    • , Peifen Lu
    • , Fenghao Sun
    • , Qinying Ji
    • , Kang Lin
    • , Junyang Ma
    • , Hanxiao Li
    • , Junjie Qiang
    • , Feng He
    •  & Jian Wu
  • Article | | open

    To realize efficient optoelectronic devices based on two-dimensional (2D) organic crystals, optimizing the photoelectrical response and growth of these materials at the 2D limit is vital. Here, the authors report enhanced internal photoresponse in large-area 2D crystals using a novel growth method.

    • Min Cao
    • , Cong Zhang
    • , Zhi Cai
    • , Chengcheng Xiao
    • , Xiaosong Chen
    • , Kongyang Yi
    • , Yingguo Yang
    • , Yunhao Lu
    •  & Dacheng Wei
  • Article | | open

    Using seismic data and numerical modelling, here, the authors characterize the three-month period of unrest occurring prior to the 2017 Agung eruption (Bali, Indonesia). They observe a large uplift signal located at ~5 km from Agung summit corresponding to the emplacement of a 10 km deep magma intrusion between Agung edifice and Batur caldera, suggesting a potential magmatic connection between the two volcanic systems.

    • Fabien Albino
    • , Juliet Biggs
    •  & Devy Kamil Syahbana
  • Article | | open

    Coccolithophores are one of the most abundant phytoplankton and calcifying organisms, well-known to produce intricate calcareous exoskeletons made of coccoliths. Here the authors show, by using X-ray nanotomography, the dependence of the grid size on the calcite nucleation site number and on the mass of coccoliths.

    • T. Beuvier
    • , I. Probert
    • , L. Beaufort
    • , B. Suchéras-Marx
    • , Y. Chushkin
    • , F. Zontone
    •  & A. Gibaud
  • Article | | open

    It is unclear whether CO2-stimulation of photosynthesis can propagate through slower ecosystem processes and lead to long-term increases in terrestrial carbon. Here the authors show that CO2-stimulation of photosynthesis leads to a 30% increase in forest regrowth over a decade of CO2 enrichment.

    • Anthony P. Walker
    • , Martin G. De Kauwe
    • , Belinda E. Medlyn
    • , Sönke Zaehle
    • , Colleen M. Iversen
    • , Shinichi Asao
    • , Bertrand Guenet
    • , Anna Harper
    • , Thomas Hickler
    • , Bruce A. Hungate
    • , Atul K. Jain
    • , Yiqi Luo
    • , Xingjie Lu
    • , Meng Lu
    • , Kristina Luus
    • , J. Patrick Megonigal
    • , Ram Oren
    • , Edmund Ryan
    • , Shijie Shu
    • , Alan Talhelm
    • , Ying-Ping Wang
    • , Jeffrey M. Warren
    • , Christian Werner
    • , Jianyang Xia
    • , Bai Yang
    • , Donald R. Zak
    •  & Richard J. Norby
  • Article | | open

    Various physical mechanisms are proposed to explain the heating observed in turbulent astrophysical plasmas. Here, Chen et al. find a signature consistent with one of these mechanisms, electron Landau damping, by applying a field-particle correlation technique to in situ spacecraft data of turbulence in the Earth’s magnetosheath.

    • C. H. K. Chen
    • , K. G. Klein
    •  & G. G. Howes
  • Article | | open

    Here, Depledge et al. use nanopore arrays for direct RNA sequencing to profile the HSV-1 transcriptome in productively infected cells. Sequencing of individual RNAs reveals a highly complex viral transcriptome including mRNAs encoding new viral fusion proteins derived by read-through transcription.

    • Daniel P. Depledge
    • , Kalanghad Puthankalam Srinivas
    • , Tomohiko Sadaoka
    • , Devin Bready
    • , Yasuko Mori
    • , Dimitris G. Placantonakis
    • , Ian Mohr
    •  & Angus C. Wilson
  • Article | | open

    With ever-growing datasets, it is useful to filter out details and keep only the links that carry the relevant structural information. Here the authors generalize the disparity filter by providing a tolerance parameter that can be used to tune how strict the filter is in the selection of edges to preserve.

    • Riccardo Marcaccioli
    •  & Giacomo Livan
  • Article | | open

    Adenovirus based (AdV) vectors are promising platforms for therapeutics and vaccines, but receptor usage of serotypes in clinical development remains unclear. Here, based on crystal structures and modeling, Baker et al. show that HAdV-D26/48 fiber knob protein interacts weakly with CAR but not with CD46 or DSG2.

    • Alexander T. Baker
    • , Alexander Greenshields-Watson
    • , Lynda Coughlan
    • , James A. Davies
    • , Hanni Uusi-Kerttula
    • , David K. Cole
    • , Pierre J. Rizkallah
    •  & Alan L. Parker
  • Article | | open

    Historical and future trends in net primary productivity (NPP) and its sensitivity to global change are largely unknown because of the lack of long-term, high-resolution data. Here the authors show that tree-ring isotopes can be used for inferring interannual variability and long-term changes in NPP.

    • Mathieu Levesque
    • , Laia Andreu-Hayles
    • , William Kolby Smith
    • , A. Park Williams
    • , Martina L. Hobi
    • , Brady W. Allred
    •  & Neil Pederson
  • Article | | open

    New photoluminescent strategies are required to realize high-performance ratiometric sensors for bio-sensing applications. Here, the authors demonstrate a fluorescence-thermally activated delayed fluorescence dual emission strategy for ratiometric sensors with high precision.

    • Xuping Li
    • , Gleb Baryshnikov
    • , Chao Deng
    • , Xiaoyan Bao
    • , Bin Wu
    • , Yunyun Zhou
    • , Hans Ågren
    •  & Liangliang Zhu
  • Article | | open

    Though designing conductive polymers for memory devices is attractive for future low-cost flexible electronics, a proof-of-concept device has yet to be realized. Here, the authors report a redox-gated polymer memristive processing unit with programmable multilevel storage and logic functionalities.

    • Bin Zhang
    • , Fei Fan
    • , Wuhong Xue
    • , Gang Liu
    • , Yubin Fu
    • , Xiaodong Zhuang
    • , Xiao-Hong Xu
    • , Junwei Gu
    • , Run-Wei Li
    •  & Yu Chen
  • Article | | open

    Meltwater ponding on top of ice shelves is thought to play a role in ice-shelf flexure and fracture, however in-situ evidence of these mechanisms is lacking. Here, the authors provide field-based evidence showing the impact of the filling and draining of four surface lakes on ice-shelf flexure in Antarctica.

    • Alison F. Banwell
    • , Ian C. Willis
    • , Grant J. Macdonald
    • , Becky Goodsell
    •  & Douglas R. MacAyeal
  • Article | | open

    Sodium ion batteries are known to benefit from the use of ether electrolytes. Here the authors reveal the origin showing that the energy barrier of charge transfer at the electrolyte/electrode interface dominates the interfacial electrochemical characteristics and is favorably small.

    • Kaikai Li
    • , Jun Zhang
    • , Dongmei Lin
    • , Da-Wei Wang
    • , Baohua Li
    • , Wei Lv
    • , Sheng Sun
    • , Yan-Bing He
    • , Feiyu Kang
    • , Quan-Hong Yang
    • , Limin Zhou
    •  & Tong-Yi Zhang
  • Article | | open

    Among its interesting properties, SrTiO3 can show both superconductivity and ferroelectric quantum criticality at low temperatures. Tomioka et al. use La and oxygen-isotope doping to tune electron-doped SrTiO3 to the critical region and observe enhanced superconductivity, suggesting a link between them.

    • Yasuhide Tomioka
    • , Naoki Shirakawa
    • , Keisuke Shibuya
    •  & Isao H. Inoue
  • Article | | open

    Quaternary contacts mediated by an extended heavy-chain framework region 3 (FR3) have been shown to improve binding to HIV envelope and virus neutralization for a few antibodies. Here, Liu et al. engraft such an FR3 loop onto several potent broadly neutralizing antibodies, resulting in improved neutralization activity and pharmacokinetics.

    • Qingbo Liu
    • , Yen-Ting Lai
    • , Peng Zhang
    • , Mark K. Louder
    • , Amarendra Pegu
    • , Reda Rawi
    • , Mangaiarkarasi Asokan
    • , Xuejun Chen
    • , Chen-Hsiang Shen
    • , Gwo-Yu Chuang
    • , Eun Sung Yang
    • , Huiyi Miao
    • , Yuge Wang
    • , Anthony S. Fauci
    • , Peter D. Kwong
    • , John R. Mascola
    •  & Paolo Lusso
  • Article | | open

    The rapid development of halide perovskite light-emitting diodes mainly relies on the optimization of the active layer and charge injection layers. Here Zhang et al. incorporate three-dimensional nanophotonic substrates to enhance light out-coupling and achieve high external quantum efficiency of 17.5%.

    • Qianpeng Zhang
    • , Mohammad Mahdi Tavakoli
    • , Leilei Gu
    • , Daquan Zhang
    • , Lei Tang
    • , Yuan Gao
    • , Ji Guo
    • , Yuanjing Lin
    • , Siu-Fung Leung
    • , Swapnadeep Poddar
    • , Yu Fu
    •  & Zhiyong Fan
  • Article | | open

    Various techniques combine light and ultrasound to study the inside of strongly scattering samples, beyond the reach of purely optical imaging. Here, Katz et al. introduce the acousto-optic transmission matrix framework that allows to control and focus light beyond the acoustic diffraction limit.

    • Ori Katz
    • , François Ramaz
    • , Sylvain Gigan
    •  & Mathias Fink
  • Article | | open

    Abandoned and degraded agricultural lands undergo ecological succession that sequesters atmospheric CO2 as soil carbon, but at low rates. Here the authors show that restoration of high plant diversity provides a greenhouse gas benefit by greatly increasing the rate of soil carbon sequestration on such lands.

    • Yi Yang
    • , David Tilman
    • , George Furey
    •  & Clarence Lehman
  • Article | | open

    Pursuing high Curie temperature magnetic insulators has been one of the extensively studied subjects due to their wide appeal for spintronic applications. Here the authors experimentally and theoretically demonstrate a record high Curie temperature over 1000 K in B-site ordered double-perovskite, Sr3OsO6.

    • Yuki K. Wakabayashi
    • , Yoshiharu Krockenberger
    • , Naoto Tsujimoto
    • , Tommy Boykin
    • , Shinji Tsuneyuki
    • , Yoshitaka Taniyasu
    •  & Hideki Yamamoto
  • Article | | open

    Finding new thermoelectric materials that can achieve high performance is vital to realizing the potential of future energy harvesting technology. Here, through computation methods, the authors identify two high-performance full-Heusler thermoelectric compounds with high intrinsic band degeneracy.

    • Jiangang He
    • , Yi Xia
    • , S. Shahab Naghavi
    • , Vidvuds Ozoliņš
    •  & Chris Wolverton
  • Article | | open

    No structural data have been available for RNA polymerase holoenzymes or transcription initiation complexes that contain extracytoplasmic σ factors. Here the authors report the crystal structures of transcription initiation complexes comprising Mycobacterium tuberculosis RNA polymerase, extracytoplasmic σ factor σL and promoter DNA.

    • Wei Lin
    • , Sukhendu Mandal
    • , David Degen
    • , Min Sung Cho
    • , Yu Feng
    • , Kalyan Das
    •  & Richard H. Ebright
  • Article | | open

    1T’ phases of transition metal dichalcogenides show promise for electrocatalysis, energy storage, and spintronic applications but are difficult to obtain. Here the authors synthesize 1T’ WSe2 few-layered nanosheets by kinetically-controlled colloidal synthesis, and test their electrocatalytic activity.

    • Maria S. Sokolikova
    • , Peter C. Sherrell
    • , Pawel Palczynski
    • , Victoria L. Bemmer
    •  & Cecilia Mattevi
  • Article | | open

    Surface waves on the boundary between a magnetosphere and the surrounding plasma might get trapped by the ionosphere forming an eigenmode. Here, Archer et al. show direct observations of this proposed mechanism at Earth’s magnetosphere by analyzing the response to an isolated fast plasma jet detected by the THEMIS satellites.

    • M. O. Archer
    • , H. Hietala
    • , M. D. Hartinger
    • , F. Plaschke
    •  & V. Angelopoulos
  • Article | | open

    Oxidation of magnetite has broad implications in geochemistry and environmental science, but its reaction mechanisms are not fully understood yet. Here the authors use Bragg coherent diffractive imaging to show oxidative dissolution of magnetite inducing a rich array of strain and defect structures.

    • Ke Yuan
    • , Sang Soo Lee
    • , Wonsuk Cha
    • , Andrew Ulvestad
    • , Hyunjung Kim
    • , Bektur Abdilla
    • , Neil C. Sturchio
    •  & Paul Fenter