Phenology is the study of the timing of life cycle events at the population level, most often focusing on how they respond to climate change. It often makes use of long-term records and includes events such as flowering, leaf fall, hatching and annual migration.

Latest Research and Reviews

News and Comment

  • News and Views |

    Temperature differences between cities and the countryside have been regarded as useful surrogates for ecological responses to climate warming. However, research reveals mismatch between the phenological responses to spatial and temporal temperature gradients as well as complex interactions between urbanization and climate.

    • Constantin M. Zohner
  • News and Views |

    A Free Ocean Carbon Enrichment experiment that manipulates seawater pH on a coral reef flat shows that the level of ocean acidification at which net dissolution of corals occurs may arrive much sooner than expected.

    • Jonathan S. Stark
    •  & Chris Langdon
  • Editorial |

    Adjustments in the timing of seasonal events can seem like a relatively subtle impact of climate change, but one with potentially large ramifications for the health of ecosystems and the services they provide.