Parasitology

  • Article | | open

    Host-parasite interactions during the exoerythrocytic stage of Plasmodium infection remains poorly understood. Using dual RNA-Seq, the authors show that human mucosal immunity protein mucin-13 is upregulated during Plasmodium hepatic-stage infection and marks infected cells independent of tested Plasmodium species.

    • Gregory M. LaMonte
    • , Pamela Orjuela-Sanchez
    • , Jaeson Calla
    • , Lawrence T. Wang
    • , Shangzhong Li
    • , Justine Swann
    • , Annie N. Cowell
    • , Bing Yu Zou
    • , Alyaa M. Abdel-Haleem Mohamed
    • , Zaira Hellen Villa Galarce
    • , Marta Moreno
    • , Carlos Tong Rios
    • , Joseph M. Vinetz
    • , Nathan Lewis
    •  & Elizabeth A. Winzeler
  • Article | | open

    Cortical microtubules of Toxoplasma gondii are exceptionally stable, but it isn’t known how they are anchored along membranes. Here, Harding et al. show that GAPM proteins localize to the inner membrane complex and are essential for maintaining the structural stability of parasites.

    • Clare R. Harding
    • , Matthew Gow
    • , Joon Ho Kang
    • , Emily Shortt
    • , Scott R. Manalis
    • , Markus Meissner
    •  & Sebastian Lourido
  • Article | | open

    Plasmodium vivax biology is not well understood, due to a lack of in vitro culture systems and difficulties associated with studying clinical blood samples. Here, Kim et al. use gene expression profiles from P. vivax infected patient blood and show stage-specific chloroquine response and differential regulation of male and female gametocytes.

    • Adam Kim
    • , Jean Popovici
    • , Didier Menard
    •  & David Serre
  • Article | | open

    Giardia lamblia express a dense coat of variant-specific surface proteins (VSPs) on trophozoites that protects the parasite inside the host´s intestine. Here the authors show that stability and immunomodulatory properties of VSPs can be exploited to both protect and adjuvant vaccine antigens for oral administration.

    • Marianela C. Serradell
    • , Lucía L. Rupil
    • , Román A. Martino
    • , César G. Prucca
    • , Pedro G. Carranza
    • , Alicia Saura
    • , Elmer A. Fernández
    • , Pablo R. Gargantini
    • , Albano H. Tenaglia
    • , Juan P. Petiti
    • , Renata R. Tonelli
    • , Nicolás Reinoso-Vizcaino
    • , José Echenique
    • , Luciana Berod
    • , Eliane Piaggio
    • , Bertrand Bellier
    • , Tim Sparwasser
    • , David Klatzmann
    •  & Hugo D. Luján
  • Article | | open

    Polyadenylation stabilizes edited mitochondrial mRNAs in Trypanosoma brucei, but the involved poly(A) binding protein is unknown. Here, Mesitov et al. show that a pentatricopeptide repeat factor KPAF4 binds to A-tail and prevents exonucleolytic degradation as well as translation of incompletely edited mRNAs.

    • Mikhail V. Mesitov
    • , Tian Yu
    • , Takuma Suematsu
    • , Francois M. Sement
    • , Liye Zhang
    • , Clinton Yu
    • , Lan Huang
    •  & Inna Aphasizheva
  • Article | | open

    Trypanosoma brucei mainly relies on translational regulation to adjust gene expression, but details are unclear. Here the authors show that, under stress conditions, tRNAThr half level increases, associates with ribosomes and polysomes, and stimulates protein synthesis by facilitating mRNA loading.

    • Roger Fricker
    • , Rebecca Brogli
    • , Hannes Luidalepp
    • , Leander Wyss
    • , Michel Fasnacht
    • , Oliver Joss
    • , Marek Zywicki
    • , Mark Helm
    • , André Schneider
    • , Marina Cristodero
    •  & Norbert Polacek
  • Article | | open

    The glycome of parasites can have immunomodulatory properties or help to avoid immune surveillance, but details are unknown. Here, Martini et al. characterize the N-glycome of the canine heartworm, reveal an unprecedented complexity, particularly in anionic N-glycans, and determine recognition by components of the immune system.

    • Francesca Martini
    • , Barbara Eckmair
    • , Saša Štefanić
    • , Chunsheng Jin
    • , Monika Garg
    • , Shi Yan
    • , Carmen Jiménez-Castells
    • , Alba Hykollari
    • , Christine Neupert
    • , Luigi Venco
    • , Daniel Varón Silva
    • , Iain B. H. Wilson
    •  & Katharina Paschinger
  • Article | | open

    Mechanisms underlying increasing artemisinin resistance of Plasmodium in Southeast Asia remain unclear. Here, Zhu et al. integrate TWAS, GWAS and eQTL analyses for 773 P. falciparum isolates and identify genetic and transcriptomic backgrounds to artemisinin resistance.

    • Lei Zhu
    • , Jaishree Tripathi
    • , Frances Maureen Rocamora
    • , Olivo Miotto
    • , Rob van der Pluijm
    • , Till S. Voss
    • , Sachel Mok
    • , Dominic P. Kwiatkowski
    • , François Nosten
    • , Nicholas P. J. Day
    • , Nicholas J. White
    • , Arjen M. Dondorp
    • , Zbynek Bozdech
    • , Aung Pyae Phyo
    • , Elizabeth A. Ashley
    • , Frank Smithuis
    • , Khin Lin
    • , Kyaw Myo Tun
    • , M Abul Faiz
    • , Mayfong Mayxay
    • , Mehul Dhorda
    • , Nguyen Thanh Thuy-Nhien
    • , Paul N. Newton
    • , Sasithon Pukrittayakamee
    • , Tin M. Hlaing
    • , Tran Tinh Hien
    •  & Ye Htut
  • Article | | open

    The inflammasome is an essential component of inflammatory processes and the host response to infection. Here the authors show that inflammasome activation modulates MyD88-IRF7 type I IFN signalling and anti-malaria immunity.

    • Xiao Yu
    • , Yang Du
    • , Chunmei Cai
    • , Baowei Cai
    • , Motao Zhu
    • , Changsheng Xing
    • , Peng Tan
    • , Meng Lin
    • , Jian Wu
    • , Jian Li
    • , Mingjun Wang
    • , Helen Y. Wang
    • , Xin-zhuan Su
    •  & Rong-Fu Wang
  • Article | | open

    Disease tolerance mechanisms counter the negative effects of infection without decreasing the pathogen load. Here, the authors show that in mouse models of malaria, such disease tolerance can be conferred by adrenal hormones, by preventing excessive inflammation and hypoglycemia.

    • Leen Vandermosten
    • , Thao-Thy Pham
    • , Sofie Knoops
    • , Charlotte De Geest
    • , Natacha Lays
    • , Kristof Van der Molen
    • , Christopher J. Kenyon
    • , Manu Verma
    • , Karen E. Chapman
    • , Frans Schuit
    • , Karolien De Bosscher
    • , Ghislain Opdenakker
    •  & Philippe E. Van den Steen
  • Article | | open

    Despite functional optimisation during evolution of parasitism, most members of a calcium dependent protein kinase (CDPK) family show genetic redundancy in Plasmodium. Here, the authors screen 294 genetic interactions among protein kinases in Plasmodium and show how some CDPKs functionally interact to control motility and host cell invasion.

    • Hanwei Fang
    • , Ana Rita Gomes
    • , Natacha Klages
    • , Paco Pino
    • , Bohumil Maco
    • , Eloise M. Walker
    • , Zenon A. Zenonos
    • , Fiona Angrisano
    • , Jake Baum
    • , Christian Doerig
    • , David A. Baker
    • , Oliver Billker
    •  & Mathieu Brochet
  • Article | | open

    Sexual forms of malaria parasites are responsible for transmission to the mosquito. Anti-malarial drug resistance remains a serious problem and requires advent of new drug therapies. Here, the authors present a high-throughput screen of potential antimalarial compounds, identifying seventeen drug-like molecules specifically targeting transmission.

    • Michael J. Delves
    • , Celia Miguel-Blanco
    • , Holly Matthews
    • , Irene Molina
    • , Andrea Ruecker
    • , Sabrina Yahiya
    • , Ursula Straschil
    • , Matthew Abraham
    • , María Luisa León
    • , Oliver J. Fischer
    • , Ainoa Rueda-Zubiaurre
    • , Jochen R. Brandt
    • , Álvaro Cortés
    • , Anna Barnard
    • , Matthew J. Fuchter
    • , Félix Calderón
    • , Elizabeth A. Winzeler
    • , Robert E. Sinden
    • , Esperanza Herreros
    • , Francisco J. Gamo
    •  & Jake Baum
  • Article | | open

    The evolution of within-host malaria virulence has been studied, but the vector’s contribution isn’t well understood. Here, Costa et al. show that non-competitive parasitic resource exploitation within-vector, in particular lipid trafficking, restricts within-host infectivity and virulence of the parasite.

    • G. Costa
    • , M. Gildenhard
    • , M. Eldering
    • , R. L. Lindquist
    • , A. E. Hauser
    • , R. Sauerwein
    • , C. Goosmann
    • , V. Brinkmann
    • , P. Carrillo-Bustamante
    •  & E. A. Levashina
  • Article | | open

    Increasing resistance of Plasmodium falciparum strains to piperaquine (PPQ) in Southeast Asia is of concern and resistance mechanisms are incompletely understood. Here, Ross et al. show that mutations in the P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter are rapidly increasing in prevalence in Cambodia and confer resistance to PPQ.

    • Leila S. Ross
    • , Satish K. Dhingra
    • , Sachel Mok
    • , Tomas Yeo
    • , Kathryn J. Wicht
    • , Krittikorn Kümpornsin
    • , Shannon Takala-Harrison
    • , Benoit Witkowski
    • , Rick M. Fairhurst
    • , Frederic Ariey
    • , Didier Menard
    •  & David A. Fidock
  • Article | | open

    Mosquito saliva can affect transmission of Plasmodium to mammalian hosts, but active saliva components or mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, the authors identify a mosquito saliva protein that binds Plasmodium sporozoites and inhibits cell traversal in vitro and sporozoite speed in mice.

    • Tyler R. Schleicher
    • , Jing Yang
    • , Marianna Freudzon
    • , Alison Rembisz
    • , Samuel Craft
    • , Madeleine Hamilton
    • , Morven Graham
    • , Godfree Mlambo
    • , Abhai K. Tripathi
    • , Yue Li
    • , Peter Cresswell
    • , Photini Sinnis
    • , George Dimopoulos
    •  & Erol Fikrig
  • Article | | open

    Research on Cryptosporidium parasites, a major cause of acute infant diarrhea, is hampered by the short shelf life of oocysts, thus requiring routine propagation in laboratory animals. Here, the authors report a method to cryopreserve viable and infectious Cryptosporidium oocysts by ultra-fast cooling.

    • Justyna J. Jaskiewicz
    • , Rebecca D. Sandlin
    • , Anisa A. Swei
    • , Giovanni Widmer
    • , Mehmet Toner
    •  & Saul Tzipori
  • Article | | open

    Transcriptomic analysis often doesn’t differentiate between newly synthesized and stabilized mRNAs. Using rapid 4-thiouracil incorporation, Painter et al. here define genome-wide active transcription throughout Plasmodium blood-stage developmental stages and identify associated regulatory DNA sequence motifs.

    • Heather J. Painter
    • , Neo Christopher Chung
    • , Aswathy Sebastian
    • , Istvan Albert
    • , John D. Storey
    •  & Manuel Llinás
  • Article | | open

    Plasmodium vivax incidence in Malaysia has declined markedly over the last decade, despite evidence of chloroquine resistance. Here, Auburn et al. compare population structure of P. vivax in Malaysia to regions with intermediate and high transmission and identify genetic regions under putative selection.

    • Sarah Auburn
    • , Ernest D. Benavente
    • , Olivo Miotto
    • , Richard D. Pearson
    • , Roberto Amato
    • , Matthew J. Grigg
    • , Bridget E. Barber
    • , Timothy William
    • , Irene Handayuni
    • , Jutta Marfurt
    • , Hidayat Trimarsanto
    • , Rintis Noviyanti
    • , Kanlaya Sriprawat
    • , Francois Nosten
    • , Susana Campino
    • , Taane G. Clark
    • , Nicholas M. Anstey
    • , Dominic P. Kwiatkowski
    •  & Ric N. Price
  • Article | | open

    The development of malaria parasites is controlled by coordinated changes in gene expression. Here, the authors show that the three-dimensional genome structure of human malaria parasites is strongly connected with transcriptional activity of specific gene families throughout the life cycles of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax parasites.

    • Evelien M. Bunnik
    • , Kate B. Cook
    • , Nelle Varoquaux
    • , Gayani Batugedara
    • , Jacques Prudhomme
    • , Anthony Cort
    • , Lirong Shi
    • , Chiara Andolina
    • , Leila S. Ross
    • , Declan Brady
    • , David A. Fidock
    • , Francois Nosten
    • , Rita Tewari
    • , Photini Sinnis
    • , Ferhat Ay
    • , Jean-Philippe Vert
    • , William Stafford Noble
    •  & Karine G. Le Roch
  • Article | | open

    Microsporidia are obligate intracellular parasites that infect both humans and animals. Here, Dean et al. perform ancient gene reconstruction and functional assays to investigate the evolution and functional diversification of nucleotide transporters which are key to the parasite's intracellular lifestyle.

    • P. Dean
    • , K. M. Sendra
    • , T. A. Williams
    • , A. K. Watson
    • , P. Major
    • , S. Nakjang
    • , E. Kozhevnikova
    • , A. V. Goldberg
    • , E. R. S. Kunji
    • , R. P. Hirt
    •  & T. M. Embley
  • Article | | open

    Malaria transmission is effected by intra-erythrocytic parasites that commit to sexual development and form gametocytes. Here, the authors show that early reticulocytes in the major sites of haematopoiesis establish a cryptic asexual cycle; this cycle is characterised by early preferential commitment to gametocytogenesis, which initiates malaria transmission and drug resistance.

    • Rebecca S. Lee
    • , Andrew P. Waters
    •  & James M. Brewer
  • Article | | open

    Trypanosoma cruzi infection causes Chagas disease, but mechanisms underlying pathogenesis are unclear. Here, Silva et al. show that canonical PI3Kγ signaling in myeloid cells restricts T. cruzi infection in mice and that high PIK3CG expression correlates with low parasite levels in human Chagas’ hearts.

    • Maria C. Silva
    • , Marcela Davoli-Ferreira
    • , Tiago S. Medina
    • , Renata Sesti-Costa
    • , Grace K. Silva
    • , Carla D. Lopes
    • , Lucas E. Cardozo
    • , Fábio N. Gava
    • , Konstantina Lyroni
    • , Fabrício C. Dias
    • , Amanda F. Frade
    • , Monique Baron
    • , Helder I. Nakaya
    • , Florêncio Figueiredo
    • , José C. Alves-Filho
    • , Fernando Q. Cunha
    • , Christos Tsatsanis
    • , Christophe Chevillard
    • , Edecio Cunha-Neto
    • , Emilio Hirsch
    • , João S. Silva
    •  & Thiago M. Cunha
  • Article | | open

    Naturally acquired antibodies may inhibit Plasmodium survival in mosquitoes, alter malaria transmission dynamics, and form the basis for transmission-blocking vaccines. Here, using sera from malaria-exposed individuals, Stone et al. reveal novel antibody correlates of transmission-reducing activity.

    • Will J. R. Stone
    • , Joseph J. Campo
    • , André Lin Ouédraogo
    • , Lisette Meerstein-Kessel
    • , Isabelle Morlais
    • , Dari Da
    • , Anna Cohuet
    • , Sandrine Nsango
    • , Colin J. Sutherland
    • , Marga van de Vegte-Bolmer
    • , Rianne Siebelink-Stoter
    • , Geert-Jan van Gemert
    • , Wouter Graumans
    • , Kjerstin Lanke
    • , Adam D. Shandling
    • , Jozelyn V. Pablo
    • , Andy A. Teng
    • , Sophie Jones
    • , Roos M. de Jong
    • , Amanda Fabra-García
    • , John Bradley
    • , Will Roeffen
    • , Edwin Lasonder
    • , Giuliana Gremo
    • , Evelin Schwarzer
    • , Chris J. Janse
    • , Susheel K. Singh
    • , Michael Theisen
    • , Phil Felgner
    • , Matthias Marti
    • , Chris Drakeley
    • , Robert Sauerwein
    • , Teun Bousema
    •  & Matthijs M. Jore
  • Article | | open

    Apicomplexan parasites such as Toxoplasma gondii possess a tubulin-rich structure called the conoid. Here, Long et al. identify a conoid protein that interacts with motor and structural proteins and is required for structural integrity of the conoid, parasite motility, and host cell invasion.

    • Shaojun Long
    • , Bryan Anthony
    • , Lisa L. Drewry
    •  & L. David Sibley
  • Article | | open

    STING is an intracellular DNA sensor that can alter response to infection, but in the case of malaria it is unclear how parasite DNA in red blood cells (RBCs) reaches DNA sensors in immune cells. Here the authors show that STING in human monocytes can sense P. falciparum nucleic acids transported from infected RBCs via parasite extracellular vesicles.

    • Xavier Sisquella
    • , Yifat Ofir-Birin
    • , Matthew A. Pimentel
    • , Lesley Cheng
    • , Paula Abou Karam
    • , Natália G. Sampaio
    • , Jocelyn Sietsma Penington
    • , Dympna Connolly
    • , Tal Giladi
    • , Benjamin J. Scicluna
    • , Robyn A. Sharples
    • , Andreea Waltmann
    • , Dror Avni
    • , Eli Schwartz
    • , Louis Schofield
    • , Ziv Porat
    • , Diana S. Hansen
    • , Anthony T. Papenfuss
    • , Emily M. Eriksson
    • , Motti Gerlic
    • , Andrew F. Hill
    • , Andrew G. Bowie
    •  & Neta Regev-Rudzki
  • Article | | open

    Schistosomiasis is caused by infection with the flatworm Schistosoma, and praziquantel is the drug of choice for its treatment. Here, Chan and colleagues identify praziquantel as a ligand for the human serotoninergic 5-HT2B G-protein-coupled receptor, and reveal a function for praziquantel as a regulator of vascular tone in treated hosts.

    • John D. Chan
    • , Pauline M. Cupit
    • , Gihan S. Gunaratne
    • , John D. McCorvy
    • , Yang Yang
    • , Kristen Stoltz
    • , Thomas R. Webb
    • , Peter I. Dosa
    • , Bryan L. Roth
    • , Ruben Abagyan
    • , Charles Cunningham
    •  & Jonathan S. Marchant
  • Article | | open

    Unlike chimpanzees and gorillas, bonobos have not been found infected by malaria parasites in the wild. Here, Liu et al. report more thorough survey and sequencing results showing that bonobos host malaria parasites, including a yet-unknown species, but only in the eastern-most part of their range.

    • Weimin Liu
    • , Scott Sherrill-Mix
    • , Gerald H. Learn
    • , Erik J. Scully
    • , Yingying Li
    • , Alexa N. Avitto
    • , Dorothy E. Loy
    • , Abigail P. Lauder
    • , Sesh A. Sundararaman
    • , Lindsey J. Plenderleith
    • , Jean-Bosco N. Ndjango
    • , Alexander V. Georgiev
    • , Steve Ahuka-Mundeke
    • , Martine Peeters
    • , Paco Bertolani
    • , Jef Dupain
    • , Cintia Garai
    • , John A. Hart
    • , Terese B. Hart
    • , George M. Shaw
    • , Paul M. Sharp
    •  & Beatrice H. Hahn
  • Article | | open

    Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease transmitted by the bite of infected sand flies. Here the authors describe an atomic resolution cryo-EM structure of the Leishmania ribosome in complex with the recently approved drug paromomycin (PAR) and highlight conserved elements in the drug binding pocket that mediate PAR deleterious effects on the parasite.

    • Moran Shalev-Benami
    • , Yan Zhang
    • , Haim Rozenberg
    • , Yuko Nobe
    • , Masato Taoka
    • , Donna Matzov
    • , Ella Zimmerman
    • , Anat Bashan
    • , Toshiaki Isobe
    • , Charles L. Jaffe
    • , Ada Yonath
    •  & Georgios Skiniotis
  • Article | | open

    Invasion of red blood cells by Plasmodium falciparum is a complex process and relies on several receptor-ligand interactions. Here, the authors show that human cyclophilin B binds Plasmodium surface protein PfRhopH3 and that interruption of this interaction reduces invasion by 80%.

    • Prem Prakash
    • , Mohammad Zeeshan
    • , Ekta Saini
    • , Azhar Muneer
    • , Sachin Khurana
    • , Bishwanath Kumar Chourasia
    • , Arunaditya Deshmukh
    • , Inderjeet Kaur
    • , Surabhi Dabral
    • , Niharika Singh
    • , Zille Anam
    • , Ayushi Chaurasiya
    • , Shikha Kaushik
    • , Pradeep Dahiya
    • , Md. Kalamuddin
    • , Jitendra Kumar Thakur
    • , Asif Mohmmed
    • , Anand Ranganathan
    •  & Pawan Malhotra
  • Article | | open

    Artemether lumefantrine is widely used for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. The impact of imperfect patient adherence to the six-dose regimen is hard to assess. Using adherence data for unsupervised patients, the authors model how suboptimal adherence affects treatment outcomes.

    • Joseph D. Challenger
    • , Katia Bruxvoort
    • , Azra C. Ghani
    •  & Lucy C. Okell
  • Article | | open

    Autoimmune anaemia often accompanies Plasmodium infection and malaria, but how anaemia is induced is still unclear. Here the authors show that Plasmodium DNA, together with interferon-γ, can activate B cells to induce auto-antibodies that recognize red blood cells and promote their removal to contribute to anaemia onset.

    • J. Rivera-Correa
    • , J. J. Guthmiller
    • , R. Vijay
    • , C. Fernandez-Arias
    • , M. A. Pardo-Ruge
    • , S. Gonzalez
    • , N. S. Butler
    •  & A. Rodriguez
  • Article | | open

    Host kinases facilitate Plasmodium liver stage (LS) infection, but systematic accounting of important players is lacking. Here, the authors use a computational approach and kinase activity profiles to identify host kinase regulators of LS infection and drugs that could eliminate parasite burden.

    • Nadia Arang
    • , Heather S. Kain
    • , Elizabeth K. Glennon
    • , Thomas Bello
    • , Denali R. Dudgeon
    • , Emily N. F. Walter
    • , Taranjit S. Gujral
    •  & Alexis Kaushansky
  • Article | | open

    Heterogeneity in the transmission potential of individual hosts is an important feature of malaria. Here, the authors perform a multi-regional study of the human infectious reservoir in malaria-endemic regions of Burkina Faso and Kenya.

    • Bronner P. Gonçalves
    • , Melissa C. Kapulu
    • , Patrick Sawa
    • , Wamdaogo M. Guelbéogo
    • , Alfred B. Tiono
    • , Lynn Grignard
    • , Will Stone
    • , Joel Hellewell
    • , Kjerstin Lanke
    • , Guido J. H. Bastiaens
    • , John Bradley
    • , Issa Nébié
    • , Joyce M. Ngoi
    • , Robin Oriango
    • , Dora Mkabili
    • , Maureen Nyaurah
    • , Janet Midega
    • , Dyann F. Wirth
    • , Kevin Marsh
    • , Thomas S. Churcher
    • , Philip Bejon
    • , Sodiomon B. Sirima
    • , Chris Drakeley
    •  & Teun Bousema
  • Article | | open

    Trypanosoma brucei evades the host immune system through replacement of a variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) coat. Here, the authors show that VSG replacement takes several days to complete, and the parasite is vulnerable to the host immune system for a short period of time during the process.

    • Jason Pinger
    • , Shanin Chowdhury
    •  & F. Nina Papavasiliou
  • Article | | open

    The role of O-glycosylation in the malaria life cycle is largely unknown. Here, the authors identify a Plasmodium protein O-fucosyltransferase and show that it is important for normal trafficking of a subset of surface proteins, particularly CSP and TRAP, and efficient infection of mosquito and vertebrate hosts.

    • Sash Lopaticki
    • , Annie S. P. Yang
    • , Alan John
    • , Nichollas E. Scott
    • , James P. Lingford
    • , Matthew T. O’Neill
    • , Sara M. Erickson
    • , Nicole C. McKenzie
    • , Charlie Jennison
    • , Lachlan W. Whitehead
    • , Donna N. Douglas
    • , Norman M. Kneteman
    • , Ethan D. Goddard-Borger
    •  & Justin A. Boddey
  • Article | | open

    Many strains of Plasmodium differ in virulence, but factors that control these distinctions are not known. Here the authors comparatively map virulence loci using the offspring from a P. yoelii YM and N67 genetic cross, and identify a putative HECT E3 ubiquitin ligase that may explain the variance.

    • Sethu C. Nair
    • , Ruixue Xu
    • , Sittiporn Pattaradilokrat
    • , Jian Wu
    • , Yanwei Qi
    • , Martine Zilversmit
    • , Sundar Ganesan
    • , Vijayaraj Nagarajan
    • , Richard T. Eastman
    • , Marlene S. Orandle
    • , John C. Tan
    • , Timothy G. Myers
    • , Shengfa Liu
    • , Carole A. Long
    • , Jian Li
    •  & Xin-zhuan Su
  • Article | | open

    Early-life microbiota alterations can affect infection susceptibility later in life, in animal models. Here, Knutie et al. show that manipulating the microbiota of tadpoles leads to increased susceptibility to parasitic infection in adult frogs, in the absence of substantial changes in the adults’ microbiota.

    • Sarah A. Knutie
    • , Christina L. Wilkinson
    • , Kevin D. Kohl
    •  & Jason R. Rohr
  • Article | | open

    Plasmodium-infected red blood cells export virulence factors, such as PfEMP1, to the cell surface. Here, the authors identify a protein complex termed EPIC that interacts with PfEMP1 during export, and they show that knockdown of an EPIC component affects parasite virulence.

    • Steven Batinovic
    • , Emma McHugh
    • , Scott A. Chisholm
    • , Kathryn Matthews
    • , Boiyin Liu
    • , Laure Dumont
    • , Sarah C. Charnaud
    • , Molly Parkyn Schneider
    • , Paul R. Gilson
    • , Tania F. de Koning-Ward
    • , Matthew W. A. Dixon
    •  & Leann Tilley
  • Article | | open

    Parasitemia has been considered the main determinant of visceral leishmaniasis transmission. By combining imaging, qPCR and experimental xenodiagnoses with mathematical models, Doehl et al. argue that the patchy landscape of parasites in the skin is necessary to explain infectiousness.

    • Johannes S. P. Doehl
    • , Zoe Bright
    • , Shoumit Dey
    • , Helen Davies
    • , John Magson
    • , Najmeeyah Brown
    • , Audrey Romano
    • , Jane E. Dalton
    • , Ana I. Pinto
    • , Jon W. Pitchford
    •  & Paul M. Kaye
  • Article | | open

    Calcium dependent protein kinase 1 (CDPK1) plays an important role in asexual development of Plasmodium falciparum. Using phosphoproteomics and conditional knockdown of CDPK1, the authors here identify CDPK1 substrates and a cross-talk between CDPK1 and PKA, and show the role of CDPK1 in parasite invasion.

    • Sudhir Kumar
    • , Manish Kumar
    • , Roseleen Ekka
    • , Jeffrey D. Dvorin
    • , Aditya S. Paul
    • , Anil K. Madugundu
    • , Tim Gilberger
    • , Harsha Gowda
    • , Manoj T. Duraisingh
    • , T. S. Keshava Prasad
    •  & Pushkar Sharma
  • Article | | open

    The mechanism by which Toxoplasma gondii achieves synchronized cell division is incompletely understood. Here, the authors identify an intravacuolar cell-cell communication that ensures synchronized division and depends on myosin I.

    • Karine Frénal
    • , Damien Jacot
    • , Pierre-Mehdi Hammoudi
    • , Arnault Graindorge
    • , Bohumil Maco
    •  & Dominique Soldati-Favre
  • Article | | open

    There is a need for Plasmodium transmission blocking drugs for malaria elimination. Here, Miguel-Blanco et al. screen >10,000 compounds against stage V female gametocytes, identify active compounds belonging to 57 chemotypes and confirm transmission blocking activity of four selected compounds in vitro.

    • Celia Miguel-Blanco
    • , Irene Molina
    • , Ana I. Bardera
    • , Beatriz Díaz
    • , Laura de las Heras
    • , Sonia Lozano
    • , Carolina González
    • , Janneth Rodrigues
    • , Michael J. Delves
    • , Andrea Ruecker
    • , Gonzalo Colmenarejo
    • , Sara Viera
    • , María S. Martínez-Martínez
    • , Esther Fernández
    • , Jake Baum
    • , Robert E. Sinden
    •  & Esperanza Herreros
  • Article | | open

    For reproduction, the human parasite Schistosoma japonicum relies on a complex and incompletely understood interplay between female and male schistosomes. Here the authors sequence the transcriptome of female and male schistosomes across eight time points during sexual development.

    • Jipeng Wang
    • , Ying Yu
    • , Haimo Shen
    • , Tao Qing
    • , Yuanting Zheng
    • , Qing Li
    • , Xiaojin Mo
    • , Shuqi Wang
    • , Nana Li
    • , Riyi Chai
    • , Bin Xu
    • , Mu Liu
    • , Paul J Brindley
    • , Donald P McManus
    • , Zheng Feng
    • , Leming Shi
    •  & Wei Hu
  • Article | | open

    Benzoxaboroles have been shown to be active against different pathogens. Here, the authors show that the benzoxaborole AN3661 inhibits Plasmodium falciparum in vitro and in mouse models, and identify a homologue of a mammalian cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor as a drug target.

    • Ebere Sonoiki
    • , Caroline L. Ng
    • , Marcus C. S. Lee
    • , Denghui Guo
    • , Yong-Kang Zhang
    • , Yasheen Zhou
    • , M. R. K. Alley
    • , Vida Ahyong
    • , Laura M. Sanz
    • , Maria Jose Lafuente-Monasterio
    • , Chen Dong
    • , Patrick G. Schupp
    • , Jiri Gut
    • , Jenny Legac
    • , Roland A. Cooper
    • , Francisco-Javier Gamo
    • , Joseph DeRisi
    • , Yvonne R. Freund
    • , David A. Fidock
    •  & Philip J. Rosenthal
  • Article | | open

    Apicomplexans are parasites that use membrane transporters to scavenge essential nutrients from the host. Here the authors identify and characterize two apicomplexans transporters showing that these are crucial for cationic amino acid uptake, parasite survival and virulence.

    • Esther Rajendran
    • , Sanduni V. Hapuarachchi
    • , Catherine M. Miller
    • , Stephen J. Fairweather
    • , Yeping Cai
    • , Nicholas C. Smith
    • , Ian A. Cockburn
    • , Stefan Bröer
    • , Kiaran Kirk
    •  & Giel G. van Dooren
  • Article | | open

    The secreted Plasmodium falciparum protein RH5 is essential for invasion of erythrocytes and is a promising vaccine candidate. Here, Galaway et al. show that the N-terminal region of RH5 binds the GPI-anchored merozoite surface protein P113 and can elicit invasion-blocking antibodies.

    • Francis Galaway
    • , Laura G. Drought
    • , Maria Fala
    • , Nadia Cross
    • , Alison C. Kemp
    • , Julian C. Rayner
    •  & Gavin J. Wright
  • Article | | open

    Unbiased identification of proteins from pathogens that are exposed to a host can provide insight into host–pathogen interaction. Here, the authors use an enzymatic tagging method and mass spectrometry to identify rapidly evolving Nematocida microsporidia proteins when infecting C. elegans.

    • Aaron W. Reinke
    • , Keir M. Balla
    • , Eric J. Bennett
    •  & Emily R. Troemel
  • Article | | open

    Oocyst rupture and release of malaria sporozoites is needed for transmission of parasites from vector to humans. Here the authors identify two proteins, which they name ORP1 and ORP2, that form heterodimers and are required for oocyst rupture.

    • Chiara Currà
    • , Renate Gessmann
    • , Tomasino Pace
    • , Leonardo Picci
    • , Giulia Peruzzi
    • , Vassiliki Varamogianni-Mamatsi
    • , Lefteris Spanos
    • , Célia R. S. Garcia
    • , Roberta Spaccapelo
    • , Marta Ponzi
    •  & Inga Siden-Kiamos
  • Article | | open

    Giardia lamblia is a human protozoan parasite with two diploid nuclei, which makes complete knock-out of a gene of interest challenging. Here the authors use a Cre/loxP-based approach to knock-out cyst-wall protein 1 (cwp1) and show that CWP1 is essential for cyst-wall biosynthesis.

    • Jacqueline A. Ebneter
    • , Sally D. Heusser
    • , Elisabeth M. Schraner
    • , Adrian B. Hehl
    •  & Carmen Faso