Nutrition

  • Article
    | Open Access

    The choice of food intake is at least partially influenced by genetics, even though the effect sizes appear rather modest. Here, Cole et al. perform GWAS for food intake (85 individual food items and 85 derived dietary patterns) and test potential causal relationships with cardiometabolic traits using Mendelian randomization.

    • Joanne B. Cole
    • , Jose C. Florez
    •  & Joel N. Hirschhorn
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Food intake shapes intestinal microbiome composition, which in turn shapes adaptive immune responses. Here the authors show that dietary tryptophan restriction (DTR) protects mice from subsequent autoimmune neuropathology challenge by altering intestinal microbiota, highlighting the potential of diet-regulated microbiota to prevent immune pathology.

    • Jana K. Sonner
    • , Melanie Keil
    •  & Michael Platten
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Previous studies have suggested that being hungry causes people to make more selfish and less prosocial decisions. Here, the authors carried out a series of studies to test this claim and found that the effect of acute hunger was very weak at best.

    • Jan A. Häusser
    • , Christina Stahlecker
    •  & Nadira S. Faber
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Nutritional experience can have phenotypic consequences in subsequent generations, as is evident from studies in animals and plants. Here, Vågerö et al. find in a large three-generation cohort that access to food in the paternal grandfather associates with all-cause and cancer mortality in male grandchildren.

    • Denny Vågerö
    • , Pia R. Pinger
    •  & Gerard J. van den Berg
  • Article |

    African Americans have much higher colon cancer rates than rural South Africans, which is associated with dietary and metabolic differences. Here, O’Keefe et al.show that switching quantities of fat and fibre leads to reciprocal changes in gut microbiota, metabolites and cancer biomarkers.

    • Stephen J. D. O’Keefe
    • , Jia V. Li
    •  & Erwin G. Zoetendal
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Chronic consumption of a Western-type diet leads to systemic inflammation of undefined origin, which contributes to metabolic disease. Here Progatzky et al. identify an immediate early step in the process by showing that dietary cholesterol rapidly activates inflammasomes in the gut epithelium.

    • Fränze Progatzky
    • , Navjyot J. Sangha
    •  & Margaret J. Dallman
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Diet variations can alter gut microbial composition, but the potential influence of host genetic factors on these effects is unclear. Here, the authors show, in humans and in natural and laboratory fish populations, that such effects are dependent on the host’s sex, a genetically determined factor.

    • Daniel I. Bolnick
    • , Lisa K. Snowberg
    •  & Richard Svanbäck
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The consumption of fermentable carbohydrates, or fibre, is associated with weight loss. Here the authors show that the metabolite acetate, created by fermentation of fibre in the mouse colon, is taken up into the brain where it induces appetite-suppressing neuronal activity in the hypothalamus.

    • Gary Frost
    • , Michelle L. Sleeth
    •  & Jimmy D. Bell
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Maternal diet affects DNA methylation in the developing offspring, leading to phenotypic changes. Here, Dominguez-Salas et al. exploit seasonal variation in the diet of Gambian women to show that maternal methyl donor nutrient status around the time of conception predicts methylation levels at metastable epialleles in infants.

    • Paula Dominguez-Salas
    • , Sophie E. Moore
    •  & Branwen J. Hennig
  • Article
    | Open Access

    D-Glucosamine is a dietary supplement widely used for the treatment of osteoarthritis. Here Weimer et al. show that D-glucosamine extends the life span of Caenorhabditis elegans and of mice by mimicking the molecular effects of a diet low in carbohydrates.

    • Sandra Weimer
    • , Josephine Priebs
    •  & Michael Ristow
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Caloric restriction extends the lifespan of various organisms but whether it works in monkeys is controversial. Here, Colman et al.report that caloric restriction reduces all-cause mortality of rhesus macaques, and perform a weight comparison that aims to reconcile their findings with contradictory results from a similar study.

    • Ricki J. Colman
    • , T. Mark Beasley
    •  & Rozalyn M. Anderson