Nuclear physics

  • Article
    | Open Access

    Laser spectroscopic measurements of isotopes near the doubly-magic 100-Sn are challenging due to difficulties in their production. Here the authors measure the ground state charge radius of the proton-rich 96-Ag isotope and find a discontinuity in the nuclear size when crossing the neutron number N equal to 50.

    • M. Reponen
    • , R. P. de Groote
    •  & I. D. Moore
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The charge radius of nucleons provides information about their structure. Here the authors present a method, based values of neutron electric form factors, to determine the charge radius of the neutron and provide information on improving the uncertainty of neutron charge radius measurements

    • H. Atac
    • , M. Constantinou
    •  & N. Sparveris
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Current models of Galactic chemical evolution under predict the phosphorus we observe in our Solar System. Here, the authors show the discovery of 15 phosphorus-rich stars with a peculiar abundance pattern that challenges the present stellar nucleosynthesis theoretical predictions, but which could explain the missing source of phosphorus in the Galaxy.

    • Thomas Masseron
    • , D. A. García-Hernández
    •  & Carlos Dafonte
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Second order effects can play an important role in highlighting nuclear structure properties. Here, the authors show how the second-order nuclear transitions in the form of double-gamma decay in 137Ba help understanding atomic nuclei.

    • P.-A. Söderström
    • , L. Capponi
    •  & T. Petruse
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The dominant emission sources of anthropogenic radionuclides come from either atmospheric nuclear weapons tests or the nuclear industry (i.e., reprocessing plants or reactor accidents). Here, the authors identify a new environmental isotope tracer ($$^{233}$$233U/$$^{236}$$236U) which can help distinguish emissions from nuclear weapons tests, and can also provide constraints on past weapon designs and fuel sources, for which many details remain classified or lost.

    • K. Hain
    • , P. Steier
    •  & A. Sakaguchi
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Octupole deformation in nuclei is important to understand nuclear structure and electric dipole moments of heavy atoms. Here the authors measure energies of excited quantum states in radon isotopes and find that these isotopes do not provide favourable conditions in the search for CP-violation.

    • P. A. Butler
    • , L. P. Gaffney
    •  & M. Zielinska
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Symmetry breaking is an important process in fundamental understanding of matter and dark matter. Here the authors discuss an experimental bound on an exotic parity odd spin- and velocity-dependent interaction between electron and nucleon by using a sensitive spin-exchange relaxation-free atomic magnetometer.

    • Young Jin Kim
    • , Ping-Han Chu
    •  & Shaun Newman
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Thermonuclear fusion of nuclei of deuterium and tritium may provide the energy for the future and spin polarization is a potential mechanism for enhancing the nuclear reaction. Here the authors predict the enhanced DT fusion rate using chiral effective field theory and ab initio calculations.

    • Guillaume Hupin
    • , Sofia Quaglioni
    •  & Petr Navrátil
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Weaker ferritic/matensitic steels rather than stronger austenitic steels are usually candidates for nuclear reactors since they do not easily swell under irradiation. Here, the authors make an ultrastrong lanthanum-doped nanocrystalline austenitic steel that is thermally stable and radiation-tolerant.

    • Congcong Du
    • , Shenbao Jin
    •  & Tongde Shen
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Mapping the distribution of magnetic fields inside bulk materials is challenging but crucial to understand and develop functional magnetic materials. Here the authors demonstrate the capability to visualize 3D vector magnetic fields inside materials using spin-polarized neutron tomography and tensorial reconstruction techniques.

    • A. Hilger
    • , I. Manke
    •  & J. Banhart
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Magic numbers are associated with the stability of atomic nuclei. Here, the authors analyse the proton radii, binding energies and electric quadrupole transition rates of neutron-rich carbon isotopes at proton number six and use nuclear structure models to support the magic number Z = 6.

    • D. T. Tran
    • , H. J. Ong
    •  & T. Yamamoto
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Authenticating a nuclear warhead without revealing its design is a challenge. Here the authors discuss a nuclear disarmament verification method based on neutron resonance analysis which is sensitive to the isotopic composition of the materials used in warheads.

    • Jake J. Hecla
    •  & Areg Danagoulian
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The large data generated in heavy-ion collision experiments require careful analysis to understand the physics. Here the authors use the deep-learning method to sort equation of states in QCD transition and analyze the simulated data sets mimicking the heavy-ion collision experiments.

    • Long-Gang Pang
    • , Kai Zhou
    •  & Xin-Nian Wang
  • Article
    | Open Access

    It remains a challenge to find the structure and the distribution of the constituents of nucleons. Here the authors use a scattering method to get information about the gluons and quarks inside a proton and separate the contribution of Bethe-Heitler from the deeply virtual Compton scattering process.

    • M. Defurne
    • , A. Martí Jiménez-Argüello
    •  & P. Zhu
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Precision measurements provide a sensitive test of fundamental constants and their uncertainties. Here the authors precisely measure the hyperfine structure splitting in bismuth ions, and report significant discrepancy with the theoretical prediction of quantum electrodynamics.

    • Johannes Ullmann
    • , Zoran Andelkovic
    •  & Wilfried Nörtershäuser
  • Article
    | Open Access

    One hypothesis for solar system formation is gas compression by a nearby supernova, whose traces should be found in isotopic anomalies. Here the authors show that this mechanism is viable only if the triggering event was a low-mass supernova, looking at short-lived 10Be and lack of anomalies in stable isotopes.

    • Projjwal Banerjee
    • , Yong-Zhong Qian
    •  & W C Haxton
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Zero-knowledge proofs can be used to prove that a statement is true without revealing why it is. Here the authors demonstrate a non-electronic fast neutron radiography technique to confirm that two objects are identical without revealing any details about their design or composition.

    • Sébastien Philippe
    • , Robert J. Goldston
    •  & Francesco d’Errico
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Monitoring the activity of nuclear reactors requires measuring the neutron distribution in the core efficiently and in real time. Here, the authors present an imaging approach for neutrons and gamma-rays that thanks to a slit-pupil-like design, enables radiations to be visualized directly in operative reactors.

    • Jonathan S. Beaumont
    • , Matthew P. Mellor
    •  & Malcolm J. Joyce
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Hyperpolarization of nuclear spins for enhancing the sensitivity of magnetic resonance can typically be achieved at low temperatures. Here, the authors demonstrate room-temperature polarization of 13C derived from optically pumped electrons of nitrogen vacancies in diamonds with arbitrary orientations.

    • Gonzalo A. Álvarez
    • , Christian O. Bretschneider
    •  & Lucio Frydman