Neuroscience

  • Article | | open

    Mutations that modulate the activity of ion channels are essential tools to understand the biophysical determinants that control their gating. Here authors reveal the role played by a single residue in the second transmembrane domain of vertebrate and invertebrate two-pore domain potassium channels.

    • Ismail Ben Soussia
    • , Sonia El Mouridi
    • , Dawon Kang
    • , Alice Leclercq-Blondel
    • , Lamyaa Khoubza
    • , Philippe Tardy
    • , Nora Zariohi
    • , Marie Gendrel
    • , Florian Lesage
    • , Eun-Jin Kim
    • , Delphine Bichet
    • , Olga Andrini
    •  & Thomas Boulin
  • Article | | open

    Membrane elongation is fundamental to autophagy and is controlled by an ubiquitin-conjugating cascade orchestrated by ATG16L1. Here, the authors identify that the E3 ligase Gigaxonin regulates autophagosome formation by controlling ATG16L1 turnover.

    • Aurora Scrivo
    • , Patrice Codogno
    •  & Pascale Bomont
  • Article | | open

    Electroencephalography (EEG) allows the measurement of electrical signals associated with brain activity, but it is unclear if EEG can accurately measure subcortical activity. Here, the authors show that source dynamics, reconstructed from scalp EEG, correlate with activity recorded from human thalamus and nucleus accumbens.

    • Martin Seeber
    • , Lucia-Manuela Cantonas
    • , Mauritius Hoevels
    • , Thibaut Sesia
    • , Veerle Visser-Vandewalle
    •  & Christoph M. Michel
  • Article | | open

    The reinforcement learning literature suggests decisions are based on a model-free system, operating retrospectively, and a model-based system, operating prospectively. Here, the authors show that a model-based retrospective inference of a reward’s cause, guides model-free credit-assignment.

    • Rani Moran
    • , Mehdi Keramati
    • , Peter Dayan
    •  & Raymond J. Dolan
  • Article | | open

    The diurnal cycle exerts influences on various aspects of plant biology. Here, the authors generate and compare diurnal transcriptomics data from nine members of Archaeplastida representing major clades.

    • Camilla Ferrari
    • , Sebastian Proost
    • , Marcin Janowski
    • , Jörg Becker
    • , Zoran Nikoloski
    • , Debashish Bhattacharya
    • , Dana Price
    • , Takayuki Tohge
    • , Arren Bar-Even
    • , Alisdair Fernie
    • , Mark Stitt
    •  & Marek Mutwil
  • Article | | open

    ATP has essential roles in cell signalling and energy homeostasis and biosensors to detect it have many potential applications. Here, the authors develop a new ATP sensor that can be targeted to the membrane or cytosol.

    • Mark A. Lobas
    • , Rongkun Tao
    • , Jun Nagai
    • , Mira T. Kronschläger
    • , Philip M. Borden
    • , Jonathan S. Marvin
    • , Loren L. Looger
    •  & Baljit S. Khakh
  • Article | | open

    Valyl-tRNA synthetase (VARS) charges valyl-tRNA with the amino acid valine, required for translation. Here, the authors describe a progressive epileptic encephalopathy in individuals from five families carrying biallelic mutations in the VARS gene that leave the enzyme activity partially intact.

    • Jennifer Friedman
    • , Desiree E. Smith
    • , Mahmoud Y. Issa
    • , Valentina Stanley
    • , Rengang Wang
    • , Marisa I. Mendes
    • , Meredith S. Wright
    • , Kristen Wigby
    • , Amber Hildreth
    • , John R. Crawford
    • , Alanna E. Koehler
    • , Shimul Chowdhury
    • , Shareef Nahas
    • , Liting Zhai
    • , Zhiwen Xu
    • , Wing-Sze Lo
    • , Kiely N. James
    • , Damir Musaev
    • , Andrea Accogli
    • , Kether Guerrero
    • , Luan T. Tran
    • , Tarek E. I. Omar
    • , Tawfeg Ben-Omran
    • , David Dimmock
    • , Stephen F. Kingsmore
    • , Gajja S. Salomons
    • , Maha S. Zaki
    • , Geneviève Bernard
    •  & Joseph G. Gleeson
  • Article | | open

    tRNAs are linked with their cognate amino acid by aminoacyl tRNA synthetases (ARS). Here, the authors report a developmental encephalopathy associated with biallelic VARS variants (valyl-tRNA synthetase) that lead to loss of function, as determined by several in vitro assays and a vars knockout zebrafish model.

    • Aleksandra Siekierska
    • , Hannah Stamberger
    • , Tine Deconinck
    • , Stephanie N. Oprescu
    • , Michèle Partoens
    • , Yifan Zhang
    • , Jo Sourbron
    • , Elias Adriaenssens
    • , Patrick Mullen
    • , Patrick Wiencek
    • , Katia Hardies
    • , Jeong-Soo Lee
    • , Hoi-Khoanh Giong
    • , Felix Distelmaier
    • , Orly Elpeleg
    • , Katherine L. Helbig
    • , Joseph Hersh
    • , Sedat Isikay
    • , Elizabeth Jordan
    • , Ender Karaca
    • , Angela Kecskes
    • , James R. Lupski
    • , Reka Kovacs-Nagy
    • , Patrick May
    • , Vinodh Narayanan
    • , Manuela Pendziwiat
    • , Keri Ramsey
    • , Sampathkumar Rangasamy
    • , Deepali N. Shinde
    • , Ronen Spiegel
    • , Vincent Timmerman
    • , Sarah von Spiczak
    • , Ingo Helbig
    • , Chris Balak
    • , Newell Belnap
    • , Ana Claasen
    • , Amanda Courtright
    • , Matt de Both
    • , Matthew J. Huentelman
    • , Marcus Naymik
    • , Ryan Richholt
    • , Ashley L. Siniard
    • , Szabolcs Szelinger
    • , David W. Craig
    • , Isabelle Schrauwen
    • , Zaid Afawi
    • , Rudi Balling
    • , Stéphanie Baulac
    • , Nina Barišić
    • , Hande S. Caglayan
    • , Dana Craiu
    • , Rosa Guerrero-López
    • , Renzo Guerrini
    • , Helle Hjalgrim
    • , Johanna Jähn
    • , Karl Martin Klein
    • , Eric Leguern
    • , Johannes R. Lemke
    • , Holger Lerche
    • , Carla Marini
    • , Rikke S. Møller
    • , Hiltrud Muhle
    • , Felix Rosenow
    • , Jose Serratosa
    • , Arvid Suls
    • , Ulrich Stephani
    • , Katalin Štěrbová
    • , Pasquale Striano
    • , Federico Zara
    • , Sarah Weckhuysen
    • , Christopher Francklyn
    • , Anthony Antonellis
    • , Peter de Witte
    •  & Peter De Jonghe
  • Article | | open

    The brain primarily uses glucose to generate energy, but the relationship of neuronal activity to glucose utilization is not necessarily a simple linear one. Here, the authors introduce relative power (rPWR) and relative cost (rCST) as new metrics to quantify how brain activity relates to glucose consumption.

    • Ehsan Shokri-Kojori
    • , Dardo Tomasi
    • , Babak Alipanahi
    • , Corinde E. Wiers
    • , Gene-Jack Wang
    •  & Nora D. Volkow
  • Article | | open

    How Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) penetrates the blood-brain barrier (BBB) remains unclear. Here, using a genetic mouse model and a virulent JEV strain, the authors show that perivascular mast cells (MC) mediate JEV neuroinvasion and identify the MC-protease chymase as a potential therapeutic target.

    • Justin T. Hsieh
    • , Abhay P. S. Rathore
    • , Gayathri Soundarajan
    •  & Ashley L. St. John
  • Article | | open

    Reduction in food intake elicits neuroendocrine adaptations to counterregulate the negative energy balance, e.g. via reduction in leptin levels. Here, the authors identify an additional starvation signal, growth hormone (GH). Blocking GH receptor attenuates the fall of whole body energy expenditure during food deprivation in mice.

    • Isadora C. Furigo
    • , Pryscila D. S. Teixeira
    • , Gabriel O. de Souza
    • , Gisele C. L. Couto
    • , Guadalupe García Romero
    • , Mario Perelló
    • , Renata Frazão
    • , Lucila L. Elias
    • , Martin Metzger
    • , Edward O. List
    • , John J. Kopchick
    •  & Donato J. Jr
  • Article | | open

    We know a large number of risk SNPs for schizophrenia, but little about how these SNPs contribute to the disorder. Here, the authors use functional genomics to identify risk SNPs that disrupt transcription factor binding and validate the regulatory effects of the transcription factor binding-disrupting SNPs.

    • Yongxia Huo
    • , Shiwu Li
    • , Jiewei Liu
    • , Xiaoyan Li
    •  & Xiong-Jian Luo
  • Article | | open

    Oxytocin is a hormone and neurotransmitter involved in reproductive and social behavior, but the role of oxytocin-related genes in the human brain remains unclear. Here, the authors map oxytocin pathway gene expression and show that it overlaps with brain regions involved in reward and emotional states.

    • Daniel S. Quintana
    • , Jaroslav Rokicki
    • , Dennis van der Meer
    • , Dag Alnæs
    • , Tobias Kaufmann
    • , Aldo Córdova-Palomera
    • , Ingrid Dieset
    • , Ole A. Andreassen
    •  & Lars T. Westlye
  • Article | | open

    BMP ligands act as retrograde signalling molecules to regulate presynaptic development, and regulation of BMP receptors by endocytosis may be an important component of this signalling pathway. Here, the authors show that Abi-mediated macropinocytosis of BMP receptors in Drosophila larva and contributes to neuromuscular development.

    • Najin Kim
    • , Sungdae Kim
    • , Minyeop Nahm
    • , Danielle Kopke
    • , Joohyung Kim
    • , Eunsang Cho
    • , Min-Jung Lee
    • , Mihye Lee
    • , Seung Hyun Kim
    • , Kendal Broadie
    •  & Seungbok Lee
  • Article | | open

    Few tools exist to study molecular diversity during neurodevelopment. Here the authors apply a genetic immortalization method in Drosophila to generate a fate map of olfactory sensory lineages, examine the relationships of this map and the neuroanatomical, molecular and evolutionary properties of the mature circuits, and identify a novel factor controlling lineage development.

    • Phing Chian Chai
    • , Steeve Cruchet
    • , Leonore Wigger
    •  & Richard Benton
  • Article | | open

    Place cells and grid cells are known to encode spatial information about an animal’s location relative to the surrounding environment. Here, the authors show that place cells predominantly encode environmental sensory inputs, while grid cell activity reflects a greater influence of physical motion.

    • Guifen Chen
    • , Yi Lu
    • , John A King
    • , Francesca Cacucci
    •  & Neil Burgess
  • Article | | open

    Lifestyle factors such as smoking and exercise contribute to the health of the brain during aging, but previous studies have focused on the effects of single lifestyle variables. Here, the authors examine the combined and individual effects of four lifestyle variables on brain structure and function.

    • Nora Bittner
    • , Christiane Jockwitz
    • , Thomas W. Mühleisen
    • , Felix Hoffstaedter
    • , Simon B. Eickhoff
    • , Susanne Moebus
    • , Ute J. Bayen
    • , Sven Cichon
    • , Karl Zilles
    • , Katrin Amunts
    •  & Svenja Caspers
  • Article | | open

    The molecular mechanisms that achieve ER morphology in neurites are not well understood. This study uses a forward genetic approach to demonstrate that atln-1 is required for neuronal ER morphology and that C. elegans atln-1 mutants exhibit defects in mitochondria fission at dendritic branch points and abnormalities in protein homeostasis.

    • Xianzhuang Liu
    • , Xiangyang Guo
    • , Liling Niu
    • , Xixia Li
    • , Fei Sun
    • , Junjie Hu
    • , Xiangming Wang
    •  & Kang Shen
  • Article | | open

    The fundamental mechanism of how sensory axons traverse a spinal cord glia limitans remains debatable, with some suggesting a role for boundary cap cells at the dorsal root entry zone (DREZ). Here, authors use time-lapse imaging of DRG axons at the DREZ to show that pioneer axons enter the DREZ before the presence of boundary cap cells, and that this entry is critically dependent on the development of actin-rich invasion structures reminiscent of invadopodia.

    • Evan L. Nichols
    •  & Cody J. Smith
  • Article | | open

    An unresolved problem in neuroscience is to determine the relevant timescale for understanding spatiotemporal dynamics of the brain. Here, the authors introduce a new framework to study the different timescales through binning the output of a generative model of neural activity.

    • Gustavo Deco
    • , Josephine Cruzat
    •  & Morten L. Kringelbach
  • Article | | open

    Midbrain dopamine (mDA) neurons are significantly associated with Parkinson’s disease and yet there is no systematic molecular classification of these heterogenous group of cells. Here authors use single cell RNA sequencing of isolated mouse neurons expressing the transcription factor Pitx3 (broad mDA neuronal marker) to identify and characterize seven neuron subgroups divided in two major branches of developing Pitx3-expressing neurons.

    • Katarína Tiklová
    • , Åsa K. Björklund
    • , Laura Lahti
    • , Alessandro Fiorenzano
    • , Sara Nolbrant
    • , Linda Gillberg
    • , Nikolaos Volakakis
    • , Chika Yokota
    • , Markus M. Hilscher
    • , Thomas Hauling
    • , Fredrik Holmström
    • , Eliza Joodmardi
    • , Mats Nilsson
    • , Malin Parmar
    •  & Thomas Perlmann
  • Article | | open

    Individuals show large variability in their capacity to lose weight and maintain this weight. Here, the authors perform GWAS in two weight loss intervention cohorts and identify two genetic loci associated with weight loss that are taken forward for Bayesian fine-mapping and functional assessment in flies.

    • Armand Valsesia
    • , Qiao-Ping Wang
    • , Nele Gheldof
    • , Jérôme Carayol
    • , Hélène Ruffieux
    • , Teleri Clark
    • , Victoria Shenton
    • , Lisa J. Oyston
    • , Gregory Lefebvre
    • , Sylviane Metairon
    • , Christian Chabert
    • , Ondine Walter
    • , Polina Mironova
    • , Paulina Lau
    • , Patrick Descombes
    • , Nathalie Viguerie
    • , Dominique Langin
    • , Mary-Ellen Harper
    • , Arne Astrup
    • , Wim H. Saris
    • , Robert Dent
    • , Greg G. Neely
    •  & Jörg Hager
  • Article | | open

    The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) synchronises daily rhythms of behaviour and physiology to the light-dark cycle. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is important for mediating SCN entrainment; however, the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Here, the authors show that the effects of VIP on the SCN are mediated by ERK1/2 and DUSP4.

    • Ryan Hamnett
    • , Priya Crosby
    • , Johanna E. Chesham
    •  & Michael H. Hastings
  • Article | | open

    The role of microglia following spinal cord injury is not fully understood. Here, using transgenic approaches to selectively label microglia and not macrophages in mice, the authors show that microglia are highly active and accumulate at the edge of the lesion in the first weeks post injury, and also that inhibiting microglia activation impairs recovery in the early stages after spinal cord injury.

    • Victor Bellver-Landete
    • , Floriane Bretheau
    • , Benoit Mailhot
    • , Nicolas Vallières
    • , Martine Lessard
    • , Marie-Eve Janelle
    • , Nathalie Vernoux
    • , Marie-Ève Tremblay
    • , Tobias Fuehrmann
    • , Molly S. Shoichet
    •  & Steve Lacroix
  • Article | | open

    It is unclear whether the sequence and timing of early life neurodevelopment varies across human populations, excluding the effects of disease or malnutrition. Here, the authors show that children of healthy, urban, educated mothers show very similar development across five geographically diverse populations.

    • José Villar
    • , Michelle Fernandes
    • , Manorama Purwar
    • , Eleonora Staines-Urias
    • , Paola Di Nicola
    • , Leila Cheikh Ismail
    • , Roseline Ochieng
    • , Fernando Barros
    • , Elaine Albernaz
    • , Cesar Victora
    • , Naina Kunnawar
    • , Sophie Temple
    • , Francesca Giuliani
    • , Tamsin Sandells
    • , Maria Carvalho
    • , Eric Ohuma
    • , Yasmin Jaffer
    • , Alison Noble
    • , Michael Gravett
    • , Ruyan Pang
    • , Ann Lambert
    • , Enrico Bertino
    • , Aris Papageorghiou
    • , Cutberto Garza
    • , Alan Stein
    • , Zulfiqar Bhutta
    •  & Stephen Kennedy
  • Article | | open

    Drebrin is an actin-binding protein known to play a role in neuronal dendritic spines but its precise regulation is unclear. Here, the authors report that DBN is activated by oxidative stress in an ATM-kinase dependent manner and increases resistance to oxidative stress in mice and in C. elegans.

    • Patricia Kreis
    • , Christian Gallrein
    • , Eugenia Rojas-Puente
    • , Till G. A. Mack
    • , Cristina Kroon
    • , Viktor Dinkel
    • , Claudia Willmes
    • , Kai Murk
    • , Susanne tom-Dieck
    • , Erin M. Schuman
    • , Janine Kirstein
    •  & Britta J. Eickholt
  • Article | | open

    GWAS have previously found 24 genomic loci associated with chronotype, an individual’s preference for early or late sleep timing. Here, the authors identify 327 additional loci in a sample of 697,828 individuals and further explore the relationships of chronotype with metabolic and psychiatric diseases.

    • Samuel E. Jones
    • , Jacqueline M. Lane
    • , Andrew R. Wood
    • , Vincent T. van Hees
    • , Jessica Tyrrell
    • , Robin N. Beaumont
    • , Aaron R. Jeffries
    • , Hassan S. Dashti
    • , Melvyn Hillsdon
    • , Katherine S. Ruth
    • , Marcus A. Tuke
    • , Hanieh Yaghootkar
    • , Seth A. Sharp
    • , Yingjie Jie
    • , William D. Thompson
    • , Jamie W. Harrison
    • , Amy Dawes
    • , Enda M. Byrne
    • , Henning Tiemeier
    • , Karla V. Allebrandt
    • , Jack Bowden
    • , David W. Ray
    • , Rachel M. Freathy
    • , Anna Murray
    • , Diego R. Mazzotti
    • , Philip R. Gehrman
    • , Debbie A. Lawlor
    • , Timothy M. Frayling
    • , Martin K. Rutter
    • , David A. Hinds
    • , Richa Saxena
    •  & Michael N. Weedon
  • Article | | open

    Blocking the PD-1 pathway was shown to be effective in amyloid beta mouse models, yet little is known about its therapeutic potential in models of tauopathy. The authors show here that blocking PD-L1, a PD-1 ligand, is similarly effective, and that both treatments reversed cognitive deficiencies, and modified disease pathology not only in an animal model of AD, but also in the DM-hTAU mouse tauopathy model, through a mechanism that involves monocyte-derived macrophages.

    • Neta Rosenzweig
    • , Raz Dvir-Szternfeld
    • , Afroditi Tsitsou-Kampeli
    • , Hadas Keren-Shaul
    • , Hila Ben-Yehuda
    • , Pierre Weill-Raynal
    • , Liora Cahalon
    • , Alex Kertser
    • , Kuti Baruch
    • , Ido Amit
    • , Assaf Weiner
    •  & Michal Schwartz
  • Article | | open

    Learning improves perceptual decisions by enhancing the brain's ability to filter noise and irrelevant information. Here, the authors show that GABAergic inhibition in decision-making circuits supports our ability to optimize perceptual judgments through learning and experience.

    • Polytimi Frangou
    • , Uzay E. Emir
    • , Vasilis M. Karlaftis
    • , Caroline Nettekoven
    • , Emily L. Hinson
    • , Stephanie Larcombe
    • , Holly Bridge
    • , Charlotte J. Stagg
    •  & Zoe Kourtzi
  • Article | | open

    Obesity is associated with altered N-acylethanolamine levels (NAE). Here the authors show that deletion of the gene encoding N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine phospholipase D, a key enzyme for NAE synthesis, in intestinal cells of mice leads to the development of obesity and hepatic steatosis via a mechanism involving the gut-brain axis.

    • Amandine Everard
    • , Hubert Plovier
    • , Marialetizia Rastelli
    • , Matthias Van Hul
    • , Alice de Wouters d’Oplinter
    • , Lucie Geurts
    • , Céline Druart
    • , Sylvie Robine
    • , Nathalie M. Delzenne
    • , Giulio G. Muccioli
    • , Willem M. de Vos
    • , Serge Luquet
    • , Nicolas Flamand
    • , Vincenzo Di Marzo
    •  & Patrice D. Cani
  • Article | | open

    Adeno-associated virus is used in gene therapy in mouse models of hearing loss. Here the authors compare vectors and find AAV2.7m8 can infect cells in the inner ear with high efficiency.

    • Kevin Isgrig
    • , Devin S. McDougald
    • , Jianliang Zhu
    • , Hong Jun Wang
    • , Jean Bennett
    •  & Wade W. Chien
  • Article | | open

    Various types of genetic variation contribute to the etiology of intellectual disability (ID). Here, the authors study a cohort of ID patients enriched for mild ID from Finland, to investigate contributions of rare and common variants associated with ID of different levels of severity.

    • Mitja I. Kurki
    • , Elmo Saarentaus
    • , Olli Pietiläinen
    • , Padhraig Gormley
    • , Dennis Lal
    • , Sini Kerminen
    • , Minna Torniainen-Holm
    • , Eija Hämäläinen
    • , Elisa Rahikkala
    • , Riikka Keski-Filppula
    • , Merja Rauhala
    • , Satu Korpi-Heikkilä
    • , Jonna Komulainen–Ebrahim
    • , Heli Helander
    • , Päivi Vieira
    • , Minna Männikkö
    • , Markku Peltonen
    • , Aki S. Havulinna
    • , Veikko Salomaa
    • , Matti Pirinen
    • , Jaana Suvisaari
    • , Jukka S. Moilanen
    • , Jarmo Körkkö
    • , Outi Kuismin
    • , Mark J. Daly
    •  & Aarno Palotie
  • Article | | open

    The precise role of auditory cortical and thalamic projections in the representation of sound in the auditory striatum is not known. Here, the authors show that silencing thalamic inputs lowers the gain of sound-evoked responses while cortical inputs only affect the best frequency responses of striatal neurons.

    • Liang Chen
    • , Xinxing Wang
    • , Shaoyu Ge
    •  & Qiaojie Xiong
  • Article | | open

    Choices between goods often depend on the action costs, but the mechanisms underlying economic decisions under variable action cost are poorly understood. Here, the authors record from neurons in the monkey orbitofrontal cortex and show that decisions under variable action cost were made in a non-spatial representation.

    • Xinying Cai
    •  & Camillo Padoa-Schioppa
  • Article | | open

    The internal molecular mechanisms that underlie excitatory synaptogenesis remain poorly characterized. This study utilizes a chemogenetic approach, in vivo biotin identification (iBioID), to discover previously uncharacterized proteins at nascent synapses. CARMIL3 is identified as a cytoskeletal protein that facilitates spine maturation and AMPAR recruitment.

    • Erin F. Spence
    • , Shataakshi Dube
    • , Akiyoshi Uezu
    • , Margaret Locke
    • , Erik J. Soderblom
    •  & Scott H. Soderling
  • Article | | open

    The utility of UV vision for visualizing habitat structure is poorly known. Here, the authors use optical models and multispectral imaging to show that UV vision reveals sharp visual contrasts between leaf surfaces, potentially an advantage in navigating forest environments.

    • Cynthia Tedore
    •  & Dan-Eric Nilsson
  • Article | | open

    Current treatments for age-related neovascular macular degeneration (nAMD) suffer from limited efficacy. Here, Zhao et al. show that pharmacological inhibition or genetic deletion of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) limits choroidal neovascularisation in rodents, and show in a pilot clinical study that targeting the MR pathway may provide clinical benefits in nAMD patiens.

    • Min Zhao
    • , Irmela Mantel
    • , Emmanuelle Gelize
    • , Xinxin Li
    • , Xiaoyue Xie
    • , Alejandro Arboleda
    • , Marie Seminel
    • , Rinath Levy-Boukris
    • , Marilyn Dernigoghossian
    • , Andrea Prunotto
    • , Charlotte Andrieu-Soler
    • , Carlo Rivolta
    • , Jérémie Canonica
    • , Marie-Christine Naud
    • , Sebastian Lechner
    • , Nicolette Farman
    • , Irene Bravo-Osuna
    • , Rocio Herrero-Vanrell
    • , Frederic Jaisser
    •  & Francine Behar-Cohen
  • Article | | open

    Obesity and the distribution of fat within the body are risk factors for cardiometabolic diseases. Here, Rask-Andersen et al. perform GWAS for bio-electrical impedance measurements in UK Biobank participants and identify 29 novel independent loci for fat distribution and a high degree of sex-heterogeneity.

    • Mathias Rask-Andersen
    • , Torgny Karlsson
    • , Weronica E. Ek
    •  & Åsa Johansson
  • Article | | open

    Size and shape of the brain are, among others, influenced by the dimensions of the skull. Here, the authors report genome-wide association studies for head circumference and intracranial volume in children and adults and the identification of nine common or low-frequency variants associated with these traits.

    • Simon Haworth
    • , Chin Yang Shapland
    • , Caroline Hayward
    • , Bram P. Prins
    • , Janine F. Felix
    • , Carolina Medina-Gomez
    • , Fernando Rivadeneira
    • , Carol Wang
    • , Tarunveer S. Ahluwalia
    • , Martine Vrijheid
    • , Mònica Guxens
    • , Jordi Sunyer
    • , Ioanna Tachmazidou
    • , Klaudia Walter
    • , Valentina Iotchkova
    • , Andrew Jackson
    • , Louise Cleal
    • , Jennifer Huffmann
    • , Josine L. Min
    • , Lærke Sass
    • , Paul R. H. J. Timmers
    • , Saeed Al Turki
    • , Carl A. Anderson
    • , Richard Anney
    • , Dinu Antony
    • , María Soler Artigas
    • , Muhammad Ayub
    • , Senduran Bala
    • , Jeffrey C. Barrett
    • , Inês Barroso
    • , Phil Beales
    • , Jamie Bentham
    • , Shoumo Bhattacharya
    • , Ewan Birney
    • , Douglas Blackwood
    • , Martin Bobrow
    • , Elena Bochukova
    • , Patrick F. Bolton
    • , Rebecca Bounds
    • , Chris Boustred
    • , Gerome Breen
    • , Mattia Calissano
    • , Keren Carss
    • , Ruth Charlton
    • , Krishna Chatterjee
    • , Lu Chen
    • , Antonio Ciampi
    • , Sebahattin Cirak
    • , Peter Clapham
    • , Gail Clement
    • , Guy Coates
    • , Massimiliano Cocca
    • , David A. Collier
    • , Catherine Cosgrove
    • , Tony Cox
    • , Nick Craddock
    • , Lucy Crooks
    • , Sarah Curran
    • , David Curtis
    • , Allan Daly
    • , Petr Danecek
    • , Ian N. M. Day
    • , Aaron Day-Williams
    • , Anna Dominiczak
    • , Thomas Down
    • , Yuanping Du
    • , Ian Dunham
    • , Richard Durbin
    • , Sarah Edkins
    • , Rosemary Ekong
    • , Peter Ellis
    • , David M. Evans
    • , I. Sadaf Farooqi
    • , David R. Fitzpatrick
    • , Paul Flicek
    • , James Floyd
    • , A. Reghan Foley
    • , Christopher S. Franklin
    • , Marta Futema
    • , Louise Gallagher
    • , Tom R. Gaunt
    • , Matthias Geihs
    • , Daniel Geschwind
    • , Celia M. T. Greenwood
    • , Heather Griffin
    • , Detelina Grozeva
    • , Xiaosen Guo
    • , Xueqin Guo
    • , Hugh Gurling
    • , Deborah Hart
    • , Audrey E. Hendricks
    • , Peter Holmans
    • , Bryan Howie
    • , Jie Huang
    • , Liren Huang
    • , Tim Hubbard
    • , Steve E. Humphries
    • , Matthew E. Hurles
    • , Pirro Hysi
    • , David K. Jackson
    • , Yalda Jamshidi
    • , Chris Joyce
    • , Konrad J. Karczewski
    • , Jane Kaye
    • , Thomas Keane
    • , John P. Kemp
    • , Karen Kennedy
    • , Alastair Kent
    • , Julia Keogh
    • , Farrah Khawaja
    • , Margriet van Kogelenberg
    • , Anja Kolb-Kokocinski
    • , Genevieve Lachance
    • , Cordelia Langford
    • , Daniel Lawson
    • , Irene Lee
    • , Monkol Lek
    • , Rui Li
    • , Yingrui Li
    • , Jieqin Liang
    • , Hong Lin
    • , Ryan Liu
    • , Jouko Lönnqvist
    • , Luis R. Lopes
    • , Margarida Lopes
    • , Daniel G. MacArthur
    • , Massimo Mangino
    • , Jonathan Marchini
    • , Gaëlle Marenne
    • , John Maslen
    • , Iain Mathieson
    • , Shane McCarthy
    • , Peter McGuffin
    • , Andrew M. McIntosh
    • , Andrew G. McKechanie
    • , Andrew McQuillin
    • , Yasin Memari
    • , Sarah Metrustry
    • , Nicola Migone
    • , Hannah M. Mitchison
    • , Alireza Moayyeri
    • , Andrew Morris
    • , James Morris
    • , Dawn Muddyman
    • , Francesco Muntoni
    • , Kate Northstone
    • , Michael C. O’Donovan
    • , Stephen O’Rahilly
    • , Alexandros Onoufriadis
    • , Karim Oualkacha
    • , Michael J. Owen
    • , Aarno Palotie
    • , Kalliope Panoutsopoulou
    • , Victoria Parker
    • , Jeremy R. Parr
    • , Lavinia Paternoster
    • , Tiina Paunio
    • , Felicity Payne
    • , Stewart J. Payne
    • , John R. B. Perry
    • , Olli Pietilainen
    • , Vincent Plagnol
    • , Rebecca C. Pollitt
    • , David J. Porteous
    • , Sue Povey
    • , Michael A. Quail
    • , Lydia Quaye
    • , F. Lucy Raymond
    • , Karola Rehnström
    • , J. Brent Richards
    • , Cheryl K. Ridout
    • , Susan Ring
    • , Graham R. S. Ritchie
    • , Nicola Roberts
    • , Rachel L. Robinson
    • , David B. Savage
    • , Peter Scambler
    • , Stephan Schiffels
    • , Miriam Schmidts
    • , Nadia Schoenmakers
    • , Richard H. Scott
    • , Robert K. Semple
    • , Eva Serra
    • , Sally I. Sharp
    • , Adam Shaw
    • , Hashem A. Shihab
    • , So-Youn Shin
    • , David Skuse
    • , Kerrin S. Small
    • , Carol Smee
    • , Blair H. Smith
    • , Nicole Soranzo
    • , Lorraine Southam
    • , Olivera Spasic-Boskovic
    • , Timothy D. Spector
    • , David St Clair
    • , Jim Stalker
    • , Elizabeth Stevens
    • , Jianping Sun
    • , Gabriela Surdulescu
    • , Jaana Suvisaari
    • , Petros Syrris
    • , Rohan Taylor
    • , Jing Tian
    • , Martin D. Tobin
    • , Ana M. Valdes
    • , Anthony M. Vandersteen
    • , Parthiban Vijayarangakannan
    • , Peter M. Visscher
    • , Louise V. Wain
    • , James T. R. Walters
    • , Guangbiao Wang
    • , Jun Wang
    • , Yu Wang
    • , Kirsten Ward
    • , Eleanor Wheeler
    • , Tamieka Whyte
    • , Hywel J. Williams
    • , Kathleen A. Williamson
    • , Crispian Wilson
    • , Scott G. Wilson
    • , Kim Wong
    • , ChangJiang Xu
    • , Jian Yang
    • , Feng Zhang
    • , Pingbo Zhang
    • , Hou-Feng Zheng
    • , George Davey Smith
    • , Simon E. Fisher
    • , James F. Wilson
    • , Tim J. Cole
    • , Dietmar Fernandez-Orth
    • , Klaus Bønnelykke
    • , Hans Bisgaard
    • , Craig E. Pennell
    • , Vincent W. V. Jaddoe
    • , George Dedoussis
    • , Nicholas Timpson
    • , Eleftheria Zeggini
    • , Veronique Vitart
    •  & Beate St Pourcain
  • Article | | open

    Serotonin is released throughout the brain from diverse projections of neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus. Here, the authors use optogenetics and fMRI mediated mapping of the mouse brain-wide serotonin network in response to acute stress and treatment with SSRI.

    • Joanes Grandjean
    • , Alberto Corcoba
    • , Martin C. Kahn
    • , A. Louise Upton
    • , Evan S. Deneris
    • , Erich Seifritz
    • , Fritjof Helmchen
    • , Edward O. Mann
    • , Markus Rudin
    •  & Bechara J. Saab
  • Article | | open

    Tolerance and other side effects are important limitations to the use of opioids as analgesics. In this study, the authors generated mice lacking phosphorylation sites on the µ-opioid receptor to assess their contribution to the analgesic, tolerance and side effect profile of opioid analgesics.

    • A. Kliewer
    • , F. Schmiedel
    • , S. Sianati
    • , A. Bailey
    • , J. T. Bateman
    • , E. S. Levitt
    • , J. T. Williams
    • , M. J. Christie
    •  & S. Schulz
  • Article | | open

    Context-dependent inhibition of NMDA receptors has important therapeutic implications for treatment of neurological diseases. Here, the authors use structural biology and biophysics to describe the basis for pH-dependent inhibition for a class of allosteric NMDAR inhibitors, called the 93-series.

    • Michael C. Regan
    • , Zongjian Zhu
    • , Hongjie Yuan
    • , Scott J. Myers
    • , Dave S. Menaldino
    • , Yesim A. Tahirovic
    • , Dennis C. Liotta
    • , Stephen F. Traynelis
    •  & Hiro Furukawa
  • Article | | open

    Agouti-related peptide (AgRP) producing neurons regulate food intake and metabolic processes in peripheral organs. Here, the authors show that hypothalamic AgRP neurons alter whole body substrate utilization to favour carbohydrate usage and lipid storage.

    • João Paulo Cavalcanti-de-Albuquerque
    • , Jeremy Bober
    • , Marcelo R. Zimmer
    •  & Marcelo O. Dietrich
  • Article | | open

    It has proven difficult to measure the release of neurotransmitters, such as dopamine, in the human brain. Here, the authors introduce and validate a new method that infers dopamine release based on minute-by-minute fluctuations of the positron emission tomography (PET) radioligand [11C]raclopride.

    • Rachel N. Lippert
    • , Anna Lena Cremer
    • , Sharmili Edwin Thanarajah
    • , Clio Korn
    • , Thomas Jahans-Price
    • , Lauren M. Burgeno
    • , Marc Tittgemeyer
    • , Jens C. Brüning
    • , Mark E. Walton
    •  & Heiko Backes
  • Article | | open

    How the brain tracks the passage of time remains unclear. Here, the authors show that tracking activation changes in a neural network trained to recognize objects (similar to the human visual system) produces estimates of duration that are subject to human-like biases.

    • Warrick Roseboom
    • , Zafeirios Fountas
    • , Kyriacos Nikiforou
    • , David Bhowmik
    • , Murray Shanahan
    •  & Anil K. Seth
  • Article | | open

    Optimal decision-making requires integrating expectations about rewards with beliefs about reward contingencies. Here, the authors show that these aspects of reward are encoded in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex then combined in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, a process that guides choice biases characteristic of human decision-making.

    • Marion Rouault
    • , Jan Drugowitsch
    •  & Etienne Koechlin
  • Article | | open

    Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) uses weak electrical currents, applied to the head, to modulate brain activity. Here, the authors show that contrary to previous assumptions, the effects of tACS on the brain may be mediated by its effect on peripheral nerves in the skin, not direct.

    • Boateng Asamoah
    • , Ahmad Khatoun
    •  & Myles Mc Laughlin
  • Article | | open

    Alpha power is known to play an important role in cognition and perception, but we do not understand the link between alpha power and perceptual learning efficacy. Here, the authors use neurofeedback training to show that increased alpha power enhances learning while reduced alpha impedes learning.

    • Marion Brickwedde
    • , Marie C. Krüger
    •  & Hubert R. Dinse