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Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a prominent cause of stroke, particularly in young adults. Knowledge of this condition has greatly increased in the past two decades, primarily owing to new data from international patient registries. This Review provides an overview of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of CVT, with a focus on new advances in the field.
Several of the spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) result from expansion of polyglutamine (polyQ)-encoding regions in different genes. Here, Orr and colleagues examine the clinical features of the the polyQ SCAs, and suggest that understanding the molecular and physiological mechanisms underlying polyQ SCAs can inform therapeutic strategies for these and other polyQ disorders.
Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) have been implicated in the pathophysiology of various neurodegenerative diseases. In this Review, Salta and De Strooper discuss the mechanisms by which ncRNAs may be linked to neurodegeneration and touch on the use of ncRNA-based biomarkers and therapies for these conditions.
The benefits of early treatment for multiple sclerosis (MS) place pressure on physicians to make the diagnosis early, thereby increasing the risk of misdiagnosis, which can have considerable consequences for patients and health-care systems. Solomon and Corboy examine the problem of MS misdiagnosis, including the probable causes and associated risks, and discuss how the tension between early diagnosis and misdiagnosis might be addressed.
A new study based on WHO data reports rates of mortality from neurological diseases in the developed world from 1989–1991 to 2012–2014. The reported increase in neurological disease mortality, which was greatest in the USA, highlights the rise of neurological diseases as an emerging threat to global health.