Nanoscience and technology

  • Review Article
    | Open Access

    This review presents an overview of scenarios where van der Waals (vdW) materials provide unique advantages for nanophotonic biosensing applications. The authors discuss basic sensing principles based on vdW materials, advantages of the reduced dimensionality as well as technological challenges.

    • Sang-Hyun Oh
    • , Hatice Altug
    •  & Michael S. Strano
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Precise and dynamic manipulation of nano-objects on a large scale has been challenging. Here, the authors introduce acoustoelectronic nanotweezers, combining precision of electronic tweezers with large-field dynamic control of acoustic tweezers, demonstrating complex patterning of sub-100 nm objects.

    • Peiran Zhang
    • , Joseph Rufo
    •  & Tony Jun Huang
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Ultra-high-field (UHF) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has potential for imaging disease including cancer metastasis. Here, the authors develop an ultra-sensitive antiferromagnetic nanoparticle probe with a small magnetisation for use in UHF MRI and demonstrate the ability to detect small primary tumours and micrometastases in mice.

    • Zeyu Liang
    • , Qiyue Wang
    •  & Daishun Ling
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The relation between the microscopic structure and the optical properties of atomic defects in 2D semiconductors is still debated. Here, the authors correlate different fabrication processes, optical spectroscopy and electron microscopy to identify the optical signatures of chalcogen vacancies in monolayer MoS2.

    • Elmar Mitterreiter
    • , Bruno Schuler
    •  & Christoph Kastl
  • Article
    | Open Access

    While H2 evolution from water may represent a renewable energy source, there is a strong need to improve catalytic efficiencies while maximizing materials utilization. Here, authors examine single-atom Pt on nickel-based heterostructures as highly active electrocatalysts for alkaline H2 evolution.

    • Kai Ling Zhou
    • , Zelin Wang
    •  & Hui Yan
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Optical receivers based on graphene still suffer from low responsivity. Here, the authors integrate a photo-thermoelectric graphene photodetector with a Si micro-ring resonator, and obtain a voltage responsivity ~ 90 V/W and a reduction of energy-per-bit consumption, enabling performance on par with mature semiconductor technology.

    • S. Schuler
    • , J. E. Muench
    •  & T. Mueller
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Particle fusion can improve signal-to-noise ratio in single molecule localization microscopy, but is limited by structural heterogeneity. Here, the authors demonstrate an unsupervised classification method that differentiates structurally different DNA origami structures without prior knowledge.

    • Teun A.P.M. Huijben
    • , Hamidreza Heydarian
    •  & Bernd Rieger
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Organising proteins in 2D and 3D is needed to develop complex bimolecular materials for a range of applications. Here, the authors report the encapsulation of ferritin and apoferritin in DNA-based voxels with programmed assembly to generate both 2D and 3D protein lattices and demonstrate the retention of protein function.

    • Shih-Ting Wang
    • , Brian Minevich
    •  & Oleg Gang
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Rapid, accurate and specific point-of-care diagnostics can help manage and contain fast-spreading infections. Here, the authors present a nanopore-based system that uses artificial intelligence to discriminate between four coronaviruses in saliva, with little need for sample pre-processing.

    • Masateru Taniguchi
    • , Shohei Minami
    •  & Kazunori Tomono
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Printed biosensors are important for health monitoring and research purposes. Here, the authors report on the development of a soft poroelastic silicone based sensor which can be easily printed and is resistant to mechanical strain hysteresis, allowing for more accurate electrophysiology readings and imaging.

    • Bongjoong Kim
    • , Arvin H. Soepriatna
    •  & Chi Hwan Lee
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Photon upconversion in lanthanide-doped nanoparticles enables important technological developments. Here the authors demonstrate a mechanism leading to enhanced upconversion emission in core-shell nanoparticles, and long-distance energy transfer between nanoparticles, through triplet state population of an organic surface ligand.

    • Sanyang Han
    • , Zhigao Yi
    •  & Xiaogang Liu
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The authors present a bi-functional metasurface, combining structural color printing observed under white light and polarization encoded It is appropriate. vectorial holography. A pixelated design is used encode multiple holographic images, and they demonstrate an electrically tunable optical security platform.

    • Inki Kim
    • , Jaehyuck Jang
    •  & Junsuk Rho
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Trap-assisted recombination caused by localised sub-gap states is one of the factors limiting power-conversion efficiency in solar cells, yet the presence and relevance is still under debate in organic solar cells. Here, the authors reveal that this recombination loss is universally present under operational conditions in these devices.

    • Stefan Zeiske
    • , Oskar J. Sandberg
    •  & Ardalan Armin
  • Article
    | Open Access

    A major goal in Engineering Biology and Materials Science is the development of active, autonomous scaffolds that mimic those present in biological cells. Here the authors report a toolkit for programming the dynamic behaviour of nucleic acid scaffolds in minimal cell-like compartments.

    • Siddharth Agarwal
    • , Melissa A. Klocke
    •  & Elisa Franco
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Here, the authors report the realization of an active pixel image sensor array composed by 64 pairs of switching transistors and phototransistors, based on wafer-scale bilayer MoS2. The device exhibits sensitive photoresponse under RGB light illumination, showing the potential of 2D MoS2 for image sensing applications.

    • Seongin Hong
    • , Nicolò Zagni
    •  & Sunkook Kim
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Halide perovskite has been applied for resistive switching memory devices, but there are challenges remained to achieve practical application. By using high-throughput screening based on first-principles calculations, the authors discover that lead-free dimer-Cs3Sb2I9 meets the requirements, which exhibits switching speed of 20 ns.

    • Youngjun Park
    • , Seong Hun Kim
    •  & Jang-Sik Lee
  • Article
    | Open Access

    miRNA profiling from patient blood can be used for cancer diagnosis. Here the authors present an electro-optical nanopore sensing platform which allows sensitive and specific miRNA detection directly in human serum and apply to monitoring of miR-141-3p and miR-375-3p in different stage of prostate cancer.

    • Shenglin Cai
    • , Thomas Pataillot-Meakin
    •  & Joshua B. Edel
  • Article
    | Open Access

    In molecular junctions, where a molecule is placed between two electrodes, the current passed decays exponentially as a function of length. Here, Chen et al. show that this exponentially attenuation can be controlled by changing a single atom at the end of the molecular wire.

    • Xiaoping Chen
    • , Bernhard Kretz
    •  & Christian A. Nijhuis
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Nanopores have been used for direct observation of RNA structure in native environments but have limited RNA differentiation capabilities. Here, the authors report on the use of Mycobacterium smegmatis porin A nanopores for the trapping and translocation identification of microRNA, siRNA, tRNA and ribosomal RNA.

    • Yuqin Wang
    • , Xiaoyu Guan
    •  & Shuo Huang
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Iron gall chelate (GA-Fe) can promote oxygen reduction reactions and reactive oxygen species generation which causes chemical corrosion. Here, the authors, inspired by this phenomenon, develop a composite nanomedicine for tumour therapy constructed by loading gallate into Fe-engineered and PEGylated mesoporous silica nanocarrier, and show that it inhibits tumour growth.

    • Bowen Yang
    • , Heliang Yao
    •  & Jianlin Shi
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) with enzyme-like activities are useful glucose oxidase mimics, but the insights into the mechanism of this reaction are limited. Here, the authors show that the process of glucose oxidation by Au NPs is analogous to the one catalysed by glucose oxidase, involving dehydrogenation and oxygen reduction to H2O2; and that other noble metal NPs also catalyse glucose dehydrogenation, but oxygen is preferably reduced to water.

    • Jinxing Chen
    • , Qian Ma
    •  & Shaojun Dong
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Chemical doping of low dimensional materials by surface adsorbed molecules has proven to be a source of electrical energy. Here, the authors find that asymmetric particles consisting of carbon nanotubes can drive electrochemical reactions by electrical potential generated from solvent adsorption.

    • Albert Tianxiang Liu
    • , Yuichiro Kunai
    •  & Michael S. Strano
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The electroreduction of CO2 offers a promising approach to produce carbon-neutral methane using renewable electricity. This study shows that the introduction of Au in Cu enables selective methane production from CO2 by regulating *CO availability.

    • Xue Wang
    • , Pengfei Ou
    •  & Edward H. Sargent
  • Review Article
    | Open Access

    Electrocatalytic nanocarbon (EN) is a class of materials receiving intense interest as next generation electrocatalysts. Although impressive platforms, work is still required to develop our mechanistic understanding of them to that of molecular electrocatalysts.

    • Erik J. Askins
    • , Marija R. Zoric
    •  & Ksenija D. Glusac
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Finding dipole orientation of nanostructures is a challenge. Here the authors report a method to determine the sign of the polarity of a single nanowire using electric-field-modulated second-harmonic generation from surface-guided ZnO nanowire.

    • Regev Ben-Zvi
    • , Omri Bar-Elli
    •  & Ernesto Joselevich
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Creating predictable, controllable nanoparticles relies on a mechanistic understanding of their synthesis. Here, through integrated in situ liquid microscopy and first-principles calculations, the authors elucidate the atomistic details involved in the formation of colloidal core-shell nanoparticles.

    • Wenpei Gao
    • , Ahmed O. Elnabawy
    •  & Miaofang Chi
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Dielectric metasurfaces have different Q-factor and light localisation requirements for sensing and imaging. Here, the authors present a dielectric metasurface, supporting two optical modes with sharp Fano resonances for high Q-factors and strong spatial confinement, allowing both sensing and imaging.

    • Donato Conteduca
    • , Isabel Barth
    •  & Thomas F. Krauss
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Here, authors report on acoustic cavities in 2D materials operating in the 50–600 GHz range and show that quality factors approach the limit set by lattice anharmonicity. Functionality expanded by heterogeneities (steps and interfaces) is demonstrated through coupled cavities and frequency comb generation.

    • Maxim K. Zalalutdinov
    • , Jeremy T. Robinson
    •  & Brian H. Houston
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Knowledge of the quantum response of materials is essential for designing light–matter interactions at the nanoscale. Here, the authors report a theory for understanding the impact of metallic quantum response on acoustic graphene plasmons and how such response could be inferred from measurements.

    • P. A. D. Gonçalves
    • , Thomas Christensen
    •  & N. Asger Mortensen
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Etching is one of the key considerations in the synthesis, storage, and application of metal nanoparticles. Here, the authors study the etching of water-soluble thiolate-protected gold nanoclusters at a molecular level and reveal an unusual recombination process in the oxidative reaction environment.

    • Yitao Cao
    • , Tongyu Liu
    •  & Jianping Xie
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Creation of high-order architectures using DNA devices is of interest for increasing the complexity of synthetic systems. Here, the authors, inspired by biological oligomers, create DNA dimers and oligomers that combining rotation and walking to make high-order systems with more complex conformational changes.

    • Ling Xin
    • , Xiaoyang Duan
    •  & Na Liu
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Fabrication of hybrid photoelectrodes on a subsecond timescale with low energy consumption remains a challenge. Here, the authors report a modular approach, laser-driven transfer synthesis, to build a library of structurally defined transition metal oxide composite films, enabling the creation of materials for diverse applications.

    • Junfang Zhang
    • , Yajun Zou
    •  & Felix F. Loeffler
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Flow through nanometer scale channels facilitates an unmasked study of water-surface molecular interactions. Here, Keerthi et al. show with conduits made from graphite and hexagonal boron nitride that strong hydrophobicity does not rule out enhanced stickiness and friction.

    • Ashok Keerthi
    • , Solleti Goutham
    •  & Boya Radha
  • Article
    | Open Access

    A major challenge across a variety of fields is how to process the vast quantities of data produced by sensors without large computation resources. Here, the authors present a neuromorphic chip which can detect a relevant signature of epileptogenic tissue from intracranial recordings in patients.

    • Mohammadali Sharifshazileh
    • , Karla Burelo
    •  & Giacomo Indiveri
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Nanoimprinting faces challenges with imprinting hard materials at low or room temperature, and with fabricating complex nanostructures rapidly. Here, the authors overcome these challenges by a room-temperature ultrasonic nanoimprinting technique that capitalizes on the concentration of ultrasonic energy flow at nanoscale.

    • Junyu Ge
    • , Bin Ding
    •  & Hong Li
  • Article
    | Open Access

    In-situ methods are important for investigating the local structure and function in molecular nanostructures but such investigations often involve laborious labeling methods that can disrupt behavior or are not fast enough to capture stimuli-responsive phenomena. Here, the authors use X-rays resonant with molecular bonds to demonstrate an in-situ nanoprobe that eliminates the need for labels and enables data collection times within seconds.

    • Terry McAfee
    • , Thomas Ferron
    •  & Brian A. Collins
  • Article
    | Open Access

    As device fabrication reach atomic scales, assembly of atomically defined components becomes crucial. Here, the authors demonstrate a low contamination transfer technique, using single-crystalline anthracene as medium, for placement of structure-specific carbon nanotubes with submicron accuracy.

    • Keigo Otsuka
    • , Nan Fang
    •  & Yuichiro K. Kato