Muscle stem cells

  • Article
    | Open Access

    Skeletal muscle stem cells (or satellite cells, SCs) are normally quiescent but activate and expand in response to injury. Here the authors show that induction of DHX36 helicase during SC activation promotes mRNA translation by binding to 5′UTR mRNA G-quadruplexes (rG4) in targets including Gnai2 and unwinding them.

    • Xiaona Chen
    • , Jie Yuan
    •  & Huating Wang
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Short term systemic expression of the reprogramming factors Oct-3/4, Sox2, Klf4, c-Myc (OSKM) rejuvenates aging cells and promotes tissue regeneration. Here the authors show that myofiber-specific expression of OSKM accelerates muscle regeneration by reducing secretion of muscle stem cell quiescence promoting Wnt4.

    • Chao Wang
    • , Ruben Rabadan Ros
    •  & Juan Carlos Izpisua Belmonte
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Insulin resistance and lower muscle strength in relation to mass are hallmarks of type 2 diabetes. Here, the authors report alterations in muscle stem cells from individuals with type 2 diabetes that may contribute to these phenotypes through VPS39 mediated effects on autophagy and epigenetics.

    • Cajsa Davegårdh
    • , Johanna Säll
    •  & Charlotte Ling
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Fusion of myoblasts is essential for muscle development and repair, but the molecular mechanism underlying this process remains unclear. Here, the authors show, using chicken embryos as a model, that TGFβ signalling inhibits fusion via a receptor complementation mechanism, and indicate the involvement of endocytic degradation of activated receptors in modulation of this process.

    • Julie Melendez
    • , Daniel Sieiro
    •  & Christophe Marcelle
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The fusion of muscle progenitor cells to form syncytial myofibers is required for skeletal muscle development and regeneration. Here, the authors describe a novel and specific molecular regulation of muscle cell fusion driven by transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) signaling.

    • Francesco Girardi
    • , Anissa Taleb
    •  & Fabien Le Grand
  • Review Article
    | Open Access

    Skeletal muscle has a remarkable regenerative capacity, which can largely be attributed to resident muscle stem cells (MuSCs). Here, the authors review the molecular mechanisms regulating MuSC quiescence, activation and proliferation, how these processes are regulated by the stem cell niche, and the role of MuSCs in neuromuscular diseases.

    • F. Relaix
    • , M. Bencze
    •  & Taglietti V.
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Chromatin structure and topology play important roles in the regulation of gene expression. Here the authors study the spatio-temporal re-organization of promoter-enhancer interactions in pluripotent ES and skeletal muscle stem cells and the corresponding impact on gene expression as a consequence of myogenic commitment and differentiation.

    • Nan Zhang
    • , Julen Mendieta-Esteban
    •  & Brian David Dynlacht
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Chronic inflammation is a feature of age-related regenerative decline in skeletal muscles, but how it directly affects resident muscle stem cell fate and function is unclear. Here, the authors show that Ccr2 signaling in muscle stem cell derived progenitors represses terminal myogenic differentiation, and that targeting Ccr2 on aged myogenic progenitors rejuvenates aged skeletal muscle healing and function.

    • Roméo S. Blanc
    • , Jacob G. Kallenbach
    •  & Joe V. Chakkalakal
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Skeletal muscle stem cells express the transcription factor Pax7. Here, the authors isolate, from human muscle, cells that are positive for the endothelial marker CLEC14A and show that despite not expressing pax7, these cells regenerate muscle and contribute to the muscle stem cell niche when transplanted into mice.

    • Andreas Marg
    • , Helena Escobar
    •  & Simone Spuler
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Muscle regeneration depends on self-renewal of muscle stem cells but how this is regulated on aging is unclear. Here, the authors identify Slug as regulating p16Ink4a in quiescent muscle stem cells, and when Slug expression reduces in aged stem cells, p16Ink4a accumulates, causing regenerative defects.

    • Pei Zhu
    • , Chunping Zhang
    •  & Wen-Shu Wu
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Following muscle damage, an inflammatory response is associated to activation of satellite cells, which drive muscle repair. Here, the authors show that upregulation of Zeb1 in macrophages and muscle fibres regulates inflammation, and also show a role for Zeb1 in maintenance of satellite cell quiescence.

    • Laura Siles
    • , Chiara Ninfali
    •  & Antonio Postigo
  • Article
    | Open Access

    “Satellite cells are crucial for skeletal muscle regeneration. Here the authors show that immunoglobulin superfamily containing leucine-rich repeat (Islr) promotes skeletal muscle regeneration via a mechanism involving Dishevelled-2 stabilization in satellite cells and protection from autophagy.

    • Kuo Zhang
    • , Yuying Zhang
    •  & Qingyong Meng
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Myoblast fusion is an essential step in muscle growth and regeneration, and is regulated by the G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) BAI3. Here Hamoud et al. show that the GPCR activity of BAI3 is spatiotemporally regulated during myoblast fusion, and identify C1qL4 and Stabilin-2 as, respectively, negative and positive regulators of its activity.

    • Noumeira Hamoud
    • , Viviane Tran
    •  & Jean-François Côté
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The factors that mediate quiescence of muscle stem cells are unknown. The authors show that Oncostatin M is produced by skeletal muscle, suppresses stem cell proliferation, and that its deletion in muscle results in stem cell depletion and impaired muscle regeneration following injury in mice.

    • Srinath C. Sampath
    • , Srihari C. Sampath
    •  & Helen M. Blau
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Incorporation of histone H3 variant H3.3 into chromatin regulates transcription. Here the authors find that H3.3 sub-variant H3mm7 is required for skeletal muscle regeneration and that H3mm7 nucleosomes are unstable and exhibit higher mobility, with H3mm7 promoting open chromatin around promoters.

    • Akihito Harada
    • , Kazumitsu Maehara
    •  & Yasuyuki Ohkawa
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Aging skeletal muscle shows declining numbers and activity of satellite cells. Here, Franco et al. show that in satellite cells of the human leg muscle vastus lateralis, somatic mutations accumulate with age and that these mutations become enriched in exons and promoters of genes involved in muscle function.

    • Irene Franco
    • , Anna Johansson
    •  & Maria Eriksson
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva is a severe disorder characterized by heterotopic ossification, and is caused by mutations in ACVR1. Here, the authors show that expression of mutant ACVR1 in fibro/adipogenic progenitors recapitulates disease progression, and that this can be halted by systemic inhibition of activin A in mice.

    • John B. Lees-Shepard
    • , Masakazu Yamamoto
    •  & David J. Goldhamer
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Satellite cells can differentiate both into myocytes and brown adipocytes. Here, the authors show that the histone demethylase Lsd1 prevents adipogenic differentiation of satellite cells by repressing expression of Glis1, and that its ablation changes satellite cell fate towards brown adipocytes and delays muscle regeneration in mice.

    • Milica Tosic
    • , Anita Allen
    •  & Roland Schüle
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Myoblast fusion is essential for skeletal muscle development and regeneration. Here the authors show that MyD88 is upregulated during myogenesis and during muscle growth, signals via the NF-κB and Wnt pathways, and that its expression modulates myoblast fusion and myofiber size in mice.

    • Sajedah M. Hindi
    • , Jonghyun Shin
    •  & Ashok Kumar
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Strategies aimed at promoting muscle regeneration to treat muscular dystrophy have met with limited success. Here the authors show instead that delaying muscle regeneration, by ablation of the transcription factor Nfix, ameliorates muscular dystrophy in mice.

    • Giuliana Rossi
    • , Chiara Bonfanti
    •  & Graziella Messina
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Satellite cells are crucial for growth and regeneration of skeletal muscle. Here the authors show that in response to muscle injury, macrophages secrete Adamts1, which induces satellite cell activation by modulating Notch1 signaling.

    • Hongqing Du
    • , Chung-Hsuan Shih
    •  & Brian J. Feldman
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Cellular fusion is essential for skeletal muscle development. Here the authors identify Minion as a microprotein required for myoblast fusion and skeletal muscle formation, and show that co-expression of Minion and Myomaker is sufficient to induce cytoskeletal rearrangement and cell fusion even in non-muscle cells.

    • Qiao Zhang
    • , Ajay A. Vashisht
    •  & Srihari C. Sampath
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Pten is known to regulate haematopoietic stem cell functions. Here the authors show that Ptenalteration of Notch signalling has stage-specific muscle regenerative functions in muscle stem cells by preventing premature differentiation of quiescent cells and enhancing the self-renewal of activated cells.

    • Feng Yue
    • , Pengpeng Bi
    •  & Shihuan Kuang
  • Article
    | Open Access

    In skeletal muscle progenitors, EZH2 maintains myogenic genes in a repressed state, but during differentiation its levels are reduced via unknown mechanisms. Here the authors show that during myogenesis, p38α kinase phosphorylates EZH2 and targets it for degradation by the ubiquitin ligase PRAJA1.

    • Silvia Consalvi
    • , Arianna Brancaccio
    •  & Daniela Palacios
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Skeletal muscle satellite cells are important for muscle regeneration, but their regulatory mechanisms are largely unknown. Here the authors identify arginine methyltransferase Prmt5 as a key regulator of satellite cell maintenance and function in adult mice, and show that Prmt5 acts mainly but not exclusively on the cell cycle inhibitor p21.

    • Ting Zhang
    • , Stefan Günther
    •  & Thomas Braun
  • Article |

    Skeletal muscle satellite cells are muscle stem cells believed to contribute only to regenerating myofibres. Here Keefe et al. show that in adult sedentary mice satellite cells continue to fuse with uninjured myofibres, but they are not globally required for the maintenance of aging muscles.

    • Alexandra C. Keefe
    • , Jennifer A. Lawson
    •  & Gabrielle Kardon
  • Article |

    Skeletal muscle stem cells are in a state of cell cycle arrest in adult skeletal muscles and are stimulated to proliferate and differentiate in response to injury or pathology. Here the authors identify two microRNAs, miR-195 and miR-497, which induce cell cycle arrest in the stem cells and suppress myogenesis.

    • Takahiko Sato
    • , Takuya Yamamoto
    •  & Atsuko Sehara-Fujisawa
  • Article |

    Satellite cells have important roles in homeostasis and regeneration of skeletal muscles. Urciuolo et al. show that the extracellular matrix protein collagen VI is required for preserving satellite cell self-renewal and muscle regeneration in vitro and in vivoby modulating muscle mechanical properties.

    • Anna Urciuolo
    • , Marco Quarta
    •  & Paolo Bonaldo