Microbiology

  • Article | | open

    Standard DNA-based analyses of microbial communities cannot distinguish between active microbes and dead or dormant cells. Here, Couradeau et al. use BONCAT (bioorthogonal non-canonical amino acid tagging), flow cytometry, and 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing to identify active microbial cells in soils.

    • Estelle Couradeau
    • , Joelle Sasse
    • , Danielle Goudeau
    • , Nandita Nath
    • , Terry C. Hazen
    • , Ben P. Bowen
    • , Romy Chakraborty
    • , Rex R. Malmstrom
    •  & Trent R. Northen
  • Article | | open

    Acinetobacter baumannii is generally considered an opportunistic pathogen. Here, Di Venanzio et al. develop a mouse model of catheter-associated urinary tract infection and show that a plasmid confers niche specificity to an A. baumannii urinary isolate by regulating the expression of chromosomal genes.

    • Gisela Di Venanzio
    • , Ana L. Flores-Mireles
    • , Juan J. Calix
    • , M. Florencia Haurat
    • , Nichollas E. Scott
    • , Lauren D. Palmer
    • , Robert F. Potter
    • , Michael E. Hibbing
    • , Laura Friedman
    • , Bin Wang
    • , Gautam Dantas
    • , Eric P. Skaar
    • , Scott J. Hultgren
    •  & Mario F. Feldman
  • Article | | open

    Chlamydia trachomatis forms membrane-bound inclusions inside the host cell that are decorated with IncA, a SNARE-like protein that promotes the fusion of inclusions. Here, Cingolani et al. show that the protein folds into a non-canonical four-helix bundle and identify an intramolecular clamp required for membrane fusion.

    • Gino Cingolani
    • , Michael McCauley
    • , Anna Lobley
    • , Alexander J. Bryer
    • , Jordan Wesolowski
    • , Deanna L. Greco
    • , Ravi K. Lokareddy
    • , Erik Ronzone
    • , Juan R. Perilla
    •  & Fabienne Paumet
  • Article | | open

    Lugdunin is a peptide antibiotic produced by the skin commensal Staphylococcus lugdunensis. Here, the authors show that lugdunin reduces Staphylococcus aureus colonization in human keratinocytes and mouse skin by inducing the expression of human LL-37 and recruitment of monocytes and neutrophils.

    • Katharina Bitschar
    • , Birgit Sauer
    • , Jule Focken
    • , Hanna Dehmer
    • , Sonja Moos
    • , Martin Konnerth
    • , Nadine A. Schilling
    • , Stephanie Grond
    • , Hubert Kalbacher
    • , Florian C. Kurschus
    • , Friedrich Götz
    • , Bernhard Krismer
    • , Andreas Peschel
    •  & Birgit Schittek
  • Article | | open

    Characterizing host-pathogen protein interactions can help elucidate the molecular basis of bacterial infections. Here, the authors use an integrative proteomics approach to generate a quantitative map of protein interactions between Streptococcus pyogenes and human saliva and plasma.

    • Lotta Happonen
    • , Simon Hauri
    • , Gabriel Svensson Birkedal
    • , Christofer Karlsson
    • , Therese de Neergaard
    • , Hamed Khakzad
    • , Pontus Nordenfelt
    • , Mats Wikström
    • , Magdalena Wisniewska
    • , Lars Björck
    • , Lars Malmström
    •  & Johan Malmström
  • Article | | open

    The dynamics of HIV-1 DNA sequences early after HIV-1 transmission remains poorly characterized. Here, the authors perform a longitudinal evaluation of HIV-1 DNA sequences in subtype C-infected individuals during acute infection, providing a landscape of the nature and evolution of the very early viral genome.

    • Guinevere Q. Lee
    • , Kavidha Reddy
    • , Kevin B. Einkauf
    • , Kamini Gounder
    • , Joshua M. Chevalier
    • , Krista L. Dong
    • , Bruce D. Walker
    • , Xu G. Yu
    • , Thumbi Ndung’u
    •  & Mathias Lichterfeld
  • Article | | open

    Antibiotics targeting cell wall synthesis display an unexplained gap between in vivo efficacy and in vitro binding affinity for their target. Here, Piepenbreier et al. develop a model for bacterial cell wall biosynthesis, show how it is affected by antibiotics, and use it to predict in vivo efficacy of antibiotics.

    • Hannah Piepenbreier
    • , Angelika Diehl
    •  & Georg Fritz
  • Article | | open

    Bacteria assemble the surface layer (S-layer), a crystalline protein coat surrounding the curved surface, using protein self-assembly. Here authors image native and purified RsaA, the S-layer protein from C. crescentus, and show that protein crystallization alone is sufficient to assemble and maintain the S-layer in vivo.

    • Colin J. Comerci
    • , Jonathan Herrmann
    • , Joshua Yoon
    • , Fatemeh Jabbarpour
    • , Xiaofeng Zhou
    • , John F. Nomellini
    • , John Smit
    • , Lucy Shapiro
    • , Soichi Wakatsuki
    •  & W. E. Moerner
  • Article | | open

    Here, Frisbee et al. show that hypervirulent Clostridium difficile induces IL-33 expression in the gut and IL-33 reduces mortality and morbidity via group 2 innate lymphoid cells. Furthermore, serum levels of the soluble IL-33 decoy receptor, sST2, are associated with enhanced disease severity in human C. difficile patients.

    • Alyse L. Frisbee
    • , Mahmoud M. Saleh
    • , Mary K. Young
    • , Jhansi L. Leslie
    • , Morgan E. Simpson
    • , Mayuresh M. Abhyankar
    • , Carrie A. Cowardin
    • , Jennie Z. Ma
    • , Patcharin Pramoonjago
    • , Stephen D. Turner
    • , Alice P. Liou
    • , Erica L. Buonomo
    •  & William A. Petri Jr.
  • Article | | open

    Most microbiome studies make conclusions based on changes in relative abundance of taxa, inferred from sequencing data. Here, the authors highlight common pitfalls in comparing relative abundance across samples, and identify solutions that reveal microbial changes without the need to estimate total microbial load.

    • James T. Morton
    • , Clarisse Marotz
    • , Alex Washburne
    • , Justin Silverman
    • , Livia S. Zaramela
    • , Anna Edlund
    • , Karsten Zengler
    •  & Rob Knight
  • Article | | open

    Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) infects a wide range of host cells. Here, using a high throughput antibody screening platform, the authors identify the cell surface receptor CD46 to be required for CMV infection of epithelial cells and trophoblast-derived cells, the latter critical for congenital CMV infection.

    • Kathryn R. Stein
    • , Thomas J. Gardner
    • , Rosmel E. Hernandez
    • , Thomas A. Kraus
    • , James A. Duty
    • , Iban Ubarretxena-Belandia
    • , Thomas M. Moran
    •  & Domenico Tortorella
  • Article | | open

    The evolution of complex animal life in the Cambrian period is thought to be related to oxygenation of the Earth System, however the timing, magnitude and mechanism of this oxygenation event remain uncertain. Here, the authors use a biogeochemical model which links tectonic CO2 degassing rates to carbon and sulphur burial, and suggest that atmospheric pO2 increased by ~50% during the Ediacaran Period.

    • Joshua J. Williams
    • , Benjamin J. W. Mills
    •  & Timothy M. Lenton
  • Article | | open

    Understanding genomic variation in Plasmodium falciparum parasites and inferring migration patterns can guide malaria elimination strategies. Using genome-wide data for 1722 parasites collected from 54 districts, the authors use identity-by-descent approaches to estimate regional parasite migration and spread of artemisinin drug resistance.

    • Amol C. Shetty
    • , Christopher G. Jacob
    • , Fang Huang
    • , Yao Li
    • , Sonia Agrawal
    • , David L. Saunders
    • , Chanthap Lon
    • , Mark M. Fukuda
    • , Pascal Ringwald
    • , Elizabeth A. Ashley
    • , Kay Thwe Han
    • , Tin Maung Hlaing
    • , Myaing M. Nyunt
    • , Joana C. Silva
    • , Kathleen E. Stewart
    • , Christopher V. Plowe
    • , Timothy D. O’Connor
    • , Shannon Takala-Harrison
    • , Harald Noedl
    • , Wasif A. Khan
    • , Paul Newton
    • , Myat P. Kyaw
    • , Nicholas J. White
    • , Arjen M. Dondorp
    • , Nicholas P. Day
    • , Charles J. Woodrow
    • , Mehul Dhorda
    • , M. Abul Faiz
    • , Rick M. Fairhurst
    • , Pharath Lim
    • , Rupam Tripura
    • , Mayfong Mayxay
    • , Ye Htut
    • , Francois Nosten
    • , Aung Pyae Phyo
    • , Sasithon Pukrittayakamee
    • , Tran Tinh Hien
    • , Nguyen Thanh Thuy Nhien
    • , Olugbenga A. Mokuolu
    • , Caterina I. Fanello
    •  & Marie A. Onyamboko
  • Article | | open

    Disease transmission is particularly complex at the human-livestock-wildlife interface. Here the authors sample E. coli from wild birds near households in Nairobi and show that antimicrobial resistance gene diversity is correlated with human and lifestock density, while virulence gene diversity is correlated with avian species richness.

    • J. M. Hassell
    • , M. J. Ward
    • , D. Muloi
    • , J. M. Bettridge
    • , H. Phan
    • , T. P. Robinson
    • , A. Ogendo
    • , T. Imboma
    • , J. Kiiru
    • , S. Kariuki
    • , M. Begon
    • , E. K. Kang’ethe
    • , M. E. J. Woolhouse
    •  & E. M. Fèvre
  • Article | | open

    Multidrug efflux pumps actively expel a wide range of toxic substrates from bacteria and play a major role in drug resistance. Here authors show the in situ structure of the efflux pump AcrAB-TolC obtained by electron cryo-tomography and subtomogram averaging.

    • Xiaodong Shi
    • , Muyuan Chen
    • , Zhili Yu
    • , James M. Bell
    • , Hans Wang
    • , Isaac Forrester
    • , Heather Villarreal
    • , Joanita Jakana
    • , Dijun Du
    • , Ben F. Luisi
    • , Steven J. Ludtke
    •  & Zhao Wang
  • Article | | open

    The oomycete Bremia lactucae is a highly variable pathogen that causes lettuce downy mildew. Here, the authors generate a high-quality genome assembly for B. lactucae, detect a high prevalence of heterokaryosis, and investigate its pathogenic consequences.

    • Kyle Fletcher
    • , Juliana Gil
    • , Lien D. Bertier
    • , Aubrey Kenefick
    • , Kelsey J. Wood
    • , Lin Zhang
    • , Sebastian Reyes-Chin-Wo
    • , Keri Cavanaugh
    • , Cayla Tsuchida
    • , Joan Wong
    •  & Richard Michelmore
  • Article | | open

    Bacterial growth and division require remodelling of the cell wall, which generates free peptidoglycan fragments. Here, Moynihan et al. show that Mycobacterium tuberculosis can recycle components of their peptidoglycan, and characterise a crucial enzyme required for this process.

    • Patrick J. Moynihan
    • , Ian T. Cadby
    • , Natacha Veerapen
    • , Monika Jankute
    • , Marialuisa Crosatti
    • , Galina V. Mukamolova
    • , Andrew L. Lovering
    •  & Gurdyal S. Besra
  • Article | | open

    Epsilon toxin (Etx) is a potent pore forming toxin (PFT) produced by Clostridium perfringens. Here authors show the cryo-EM structure of the Etx pore assembled on the membrane of susceptible cells and shed light on pore formation and mutant phenotypes.

    • Christos G. Savva
    • , Alice R. Clark
    • , Claire E. Naylor
    • , Michel R. Popoff
    • , David S. Moss
    • , Ajit K. Basak
    • , Richard W. Titball
    •  & Monika Bokori-Brown
  • Article | | open

    The relative importance of crustal vs. anthropogenic dust deposition for iron cycling in the surface ocean is unclear. Based on analysis of iron isotope data from North Atlantic aerosol samples, the authors can reveal the relative importance of anthropogenic iron emissions and its impact on marine biogeochemistry.

    • Tim M. Conway
    • , Douglas S. Hamilton
    • , Rachel U. Shelley
    • , Ana M. Aguilar-Islas
    • , William M. Landing
    • , Natalie M. Mahowald
    •  & Seth G. John
  • Article | | open

    The mechanism by which environmental pH controls the virulence of the pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes is unclear. Here, Do et al. show that changes in pH affect the activity of the virulence regulator RopB via its interaction with a quorum-sensing peptide signal.

    • Hackwon Do
    • , Nishanth Makthal
    • , Arica R. VanderWal
    • , Matthew Ojeda Saavedra
    • , Randall J. Olsen
    • , James M. Musser
    •  & Muthiah Kumaraswami
  • Article | | open

    Type VI secretion systems (T6SS) are important for bacterial interaction, competition and virulence, but the abundance and assembly of their components is still not well understood. Here, the authors apply targeted proteomics to measure the abundance of T6SS components across different species and conditions.

    • Lin Lin
    • , Emmanuelle Lezan
    • , Alexander Schmidt
    •  & Marek Basler
  • Article | | open

    It is expected that plasmids are costly and therefore that selection is required to maintain them within bacterial populations. Here, Wein et al. show that plasmid stability can emerge even in the absence of positive selection and that loss may be determined by transcription-replication conflict.

    • Tanita Wein
    • , Nils F. Hülter
    • , Itzhak Mizrahi
    •  & Tal Dagan
  • Article | | open

    Cas13d is a class 2 type VI-D CRISPR-Cas RNA-guided RNase. Here the authors present the high-resolution crystal structure of the uncultured Ruminococcus sp. Cas13d (UrCas13d)-crRNA complex and by combining structural, mutational and biochemical studies provide mechanistic insights into the CRISPR-Cas13d system.

    • Bo Zhang
    • , Yangmiao Ye
    • , Weiwei Ye
    • , Vanja Perčulija
    • , Han Jiang
    • , Yiyang Chen
    • , Yu Li
    • , Jing Chen
    • , Jinying Lin
    • , Siqi Wang
    • , Qi Chen
    • , Yu-San Han
    •  & Songying Ouyang
  • Article | | open

    Developing a predictive understanding of bacterial community responses to environmental change is an ongoing challenge. Here, Isobe et al. reanalyze data on soil microbial responses to nitrogen addition across 5 continents, finding that responses are predictable based on phylogeny.

    • Kazuo Isobe
    • , Steven D. Allison
    • , Banafshe Khalili
    • , Adam C. Martiny
    •  & Jennifer B. H. Martiny
  • Article | | open

    Here, Maury et al. show that hypervirulent Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) clones associated to dairy products exhibit higher adaptation to the mammalian gut environment, while hypovirulent clones persist in food processing environment, suggesting a relationship between Lm pathogenic potential and niche adaptation.

    • Mylène M. Maury
    • , Hélène Bracq-Dieye
    • , Lei Huang
    • , Guillaume Vales
    • , Morgane Lavina
    • , Pierre Thouvenot
    • , Olivier Disson
    • , Alexandre Leclercq
    • , Sylvain Brisse
    •  & Marc Lecuit
  • Article | | open

    Brown macroalgae is a good candidate feedstock for biorefinery, but the major carbohydrate alginate cannot be digested by current industrial microbes. Here, the authors isolate Vibrio sp. dhg and engineer it to produce value-added biochemicals from alginate using newly developed genetic tools.

    • Hyun Gyu Lim
    • , Dong Hun Kwak
    • , Sungwoo Park
    • , Sunghwa Woo
    • , Jae-Seong Yang
    • , Chae Won Kang
    • , Beomhee Kim
    • , Myung Hyun Noh
    • , Sang Woo Seo
    •  & Gyoo Yeol Jung
  • Article | | open

    Hydrothermal activity is recognized to be significant in regulating the dynamics of trace elements in the ocean. Here the authors report the first observational evidence of upwelled hydrothermally influenced deep waters stimulating massive phytoplankton blooms in the Southern Ocean.

    • Mathieu Ardyna
    • , Léo Lacour
    • , Sara Sergi
    • , Francesco d’Ovidio
    • , Jean-Baptiste Sallée
    • , Mathieu Rembauville
    • , Stéphane Blain
    • , Alessandro Tagliabue
    • , Reiner Schlitzer
    • , Catherine Jeandel
    • , Kevin Robert Arrigo
    •  & Hervé Claustre
  • Article | | open

    Microbiota impacts all major aspects of physiology, but little is known about its effects on age-related changes in immune responses. Here the authors show that gut microbiota transfer between adult and old mice increases local but not systemic germinal centre responses regardless of age directionality.

    • Marisa Stebegg
    • , Alyssa Silva-Cayetano
    • , Silvia Innocentin
    • , Timothy P. Jenkins
    • , Cinzia Cantacessi
    • , Colin Gilbert
    •  & Michelle A. Linterman
  • Article | | open

    A global warming hiatus occurred during 1998 and 2012 but its effects on phenology are unclear. Here the authors examine the trends in spring and autumn phenology in the northern hemisphere and the effects of the warming hiatus and show that phenology change rate in the northern hemisphere slowed down during the warming hiatus.

    • Xufeng Wang
    • , Jingfeng Xiao
    • , Xin Li
    • , Guodong Cheng
    • , Mingguo Ma
    • , Gaofeng Zhu
    • , M. Altaf Arain
    • , T. Andrew Black
    •  & Rachhpal S. Jassal
  • Article | | open

    The gut microbiome has been reported to be associated with obesity; here, the authors show that there are sex-specific differences in the relationship between gut microbes and abdominal obesity.

    • Yan Min
    • , Xiaoguang Ma
    • , Kris Sankaran
    • , Yuan Ru
    • , Lijin Chen
    • , Mike Baiocchi
    •  & Shankuan Zhu
  • Article | | open

    Wwp2 is an HECT-type E3 ubiquitin ligase abundantly expressed in articular cartilage. Here, the authors show that in mice, loss of Wwp2 leads to upregulated Runx2-Adamts5 signaling in articular cartilage and development of osteoarthritis, and that disease severity is reduced by injection of Wwp2 mRNA

    • Sho Mokuda
    • , Ryo Nakamichi
    • , Tokio Matsuzaki
    • , Yoshiaki Ito
    • , Tempei Sato
    • , Kohei Miyata
    • , Masafumi Inui
    • , Merissa Olmer
    • , Eiji Sugiyama
    • , Martin Lotz
    •  & Hiroshi Asahara
  • Article | | open

    Soil fungi play essential roles in ecosystems worldwide. Here, the authors sequence and analyze 235 soil samples collected from across the globe, and identify dominant fungal taxa and their associated environmental attributes.

    • Eleonora Egidi
    • , Manuel Delgado-Baquerizo
    • , Jonathan M. Plett
    • , Juntao Wang
    • , David J. Eldridge
    • , Richard D. Bardgett
    • , Fernando T. Maestre
    •  & Brajesh K. Singh
  • Article | | open

    Mature particles of bacteriophage ϕ29 consist of a 33-MDa complex formed by over 450 subunits, assembled into a head and a short tail. Here, Xu et al. report the near-atomic structures of the ϕ29 prohead, the mature virion and the genome-emptied virion, providing insights into DNA packaging and release.

    • Jingwei Xu
    • , Dianhong Wang
    • , Miao Gui
    •  & Ye Xiang
  • Article | | open

    Stabilized, native-like trimers of the HIV envelope protein, such as SOSIP trimers, are potential antigens for an HIV vaccine. Here, the authors generate a SOSIP trimer based on the consensus sequence of group M isolates, determine its structure and exposure of common epitopes, and show immunogenicity in rabbits and non-human primates.

    • Kwinten Sliepen
    • , Byung Woo Han
    • , Ilja Bontjer
    • , Petra Mooij
    • , Fernando Garces
    • , Anna-Janina Behrens
    • , Kimmo Rantalainen
    • , Sonu Kumar
    • , Anita Sarkar
    • , Philip J. M. Brouwer
    • , Yuanzi Hua
    • , Monica Tolazzi
    • , Edith Schermer
    • , Jonathan L. Torres
    • , Gabriel Ozorowski
    • , Patricia van der Woude
    • , Alba Torrents de la Peña
    • , Mariëlle J. van Breemen
    • , Juan Miguel Camacho-Sánchez
    • , Judith A. Burger
    • , Max Medina-Ramírez
    • , Nuria González
    • , Jose Alcami
    • , Celia LaBranche
    • , Gabriella Scarlatti
    • , Marit J. van Gils
    • , Max Crispin
    • , David C. Montefiori
    • , Andrew B. Ward
    • , Gerrit Koopman
    • , John P. Moore
    • , Robin J. Shattock
    • , Willy M. Bogers
    • , Ian A. Wilson
    •  & Rogier W. Sanders
  • Article | | open

    In the study, the authors identify a protein excreted by the parasite Trichuris muris, p43, which can modulate IL-13 function, a key cytokine involved in host protection. These data suggest that p43 may be a novel therapeutic target for both whipworm infections and IL13 mediated pathologies.

    • Allison J. Bancroft
    • , Colin W. Levy
    • , Thomas A. Jowitt
    • , Kelly S. Hayes
    • , Seona Thompson
    • , Edward A. Mckenzie
    • , Matthew D. Ball
    • , Eamon Dubaissi
    • , Aidan P. France
    • , Bruno Bellina
    • , Catherine Sharpe
    • , Aleksandr Mironov
    • , Sheila L. Brown
    • , Peter C. Cook
    • , Andrew S. MacDonald
    • , David J. Thornton
    •  & Richard K. Grencis
  • Article | | open

    The pathogenic human coronaviruses SARS- and MERS-CoV can cause severe respiratory disease. Here the authors present the 3.1Å cryo-EM structure of the SARS-CoV RNA polymerase nsp12 bound to its essential co-factors nsp7 and nsp8, which is of interest for antiviral drug development.

    • Robert N. Kirchdoerfer
    •  & Andrew B. Ward
  • Article | | open

    Biofilm formation and antibiotic tolerance are regulated in Pseudomonas aeruginosa by the protein PA1396, which responds to diffusible signal factors (DSFs) produced by other bacteria. Here, An et al. synthesize DSF analogues that modulate PA1396 activity and thus biofilm formation and antibiotic tolerance.

    • Shi-qi An
    • , Julie Murtagh
    • , Kate B. Twomey
    • , Manoj K. Gupta
    • , Timothy P. O’Sullivan
    • , Rebecca Ingram
    • , Miguel A. Valvano
    •  & Ji-liang Tang
  • Article | | open

    The protein corona around artificial nanoparticles is known to influence activity and biological fate, the formation around viruses is less well understood. Here, the authors observe the formation of protein corona on viruses and study the effects this corona has on viral infectivity and on amyloid protein assembly.

    • Kariem Ezzat
    • , Maria Pernemalm
    • , Sandra Pålsson
    • , Thomas C. Roberts
    • , Peter Järver
    • , Aleksandra Dondalska
    • , Burcu Bestas
    • , Michal J. Sobkowiak
    • , Bettina Levänen
    • , Magnus Sköld
    • , Elizabeth A. Thompson
    • , Osama Saher
    • , Otto K. Kari
    • , Tatu Lajunen
    • , Eva Sverremark Ekström
    • , Caroline Nilsson
    • , Yevheniia Ishchenko
    • , Tarja Malm
    • , Matthew J. A. Wood
    • , Ultan F. Power
    • , Sergej Masich
    • , Anders Lindén
    • , Johan K. Sandberg
    • , Janne Lehtiö
    • , Anna-Lena Spetz
    •  & Samir EL Andaloussi
  • Article | | open

    GM-CSF has been implicated in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) host control. Here, the authors show that activation of GM-CSF discriminates Mtb-restrictive from -permissive macrophages while co-infection with HIV disrupts GM-CSF-mediated signaling, rendering macrophages susceptible to bacterial infection.

    • Bryan D. Bryson
    • , Tracy R. Rosebrock
    • , Fikadu G. Tafesse
    • , Christopher Y. Itoh
    • , Armel Nibasumba
    • , Gregory H. Babunovic
    • , Bjorn Corleis
    • , Constance Martin
    • , Caroline Keegan
    • , Priscila Andrade
    • , Susan Realegeno
    • , Douglas Kwon
    • , Robert L. Modlin
    •  & Sarah M. Fortune
  • Article | | open

    Schistosoma mansoniinfection has been linked with an increased risk of HIV acquisition in women. Here, the authors show that standard S. mansoniinfection treatment causes a reduction of HIV entry into cervical and blood CD4+ T cells, which is sustained for up to two months and is associated with de-repression of IFN-I signaling. 

    • Sergey Yegorov
    • , Vineet Joag
    • , Ronald M. Galiwango
    • , Sara V. Good
    • , Juliet Mpendo
    • , Egbert Tannich
    • , Andrea K. Boggild
    • , Noah Kiwanuka
    • , Bernard S. Bagaya
    •  & Rupert Kaul
  • Article | | open

    Candida albicans is an opportunistic fungus primarily affecting immunocompromised patients. Here, the authors identify a novel mechanism of host immune stimulation and highlight candidalysin and EGFR signalling components as potential targets for prophylactic and therapeutic intervention of mucosal candidiasis.

    • Jemima Ho
    • , Xuexin Yang
    • , Spyridoula-Angeliki Nikou
    • , Nessim Kichik
    • , Andrew Donkin
    • , Nicole O. Ponde
    • , Jonathan P. Richardson
    • , Remi L. Gratacap
    • , Linda S. Archambault
    • , Christian P. Zwirner
    • , Celia Murciano
    • , Rhonda Henley-Smith
    • , Selvam Thavaraj
    • , Christopher J. Tynan
    • , Sarah L. Gaffen
    • , Bernhard Hube
    • , Robert T. Wheeler
    • , David L. Moyes
    •  & Julian R. Naglik
  • Article | | open

    The authors identify circular RNAs (circRNA) from human papillomavirus and show that circRNA-encoded E7 contributes to cancer cell growth in vitro and in tumor xenografts. Furthermore, circE7 is present in TCGA RNA-Seq data from HPV-positive cancers.

    • Jiawei Zhao
    • , Eunice E. Lee
    • , Jiwoong Kim
    • , Rong Yang
    • , Bahir Chamseddin
    • , Chunyang Ni
    • , Elona Gusho
    • , Yang Xie
    • , Cheng-Ming Chiang
    • , Michael Buszczak
    • , Xiaowei Zhan
    • , Laimonis Laimins
    •  & Richard C. Wang
  • Article | | open

    The role of fungi in the biogeochemical cycling of gold remains unclear. Here the authors show that fungi can initiate gold oxidation under supergene conditions, thereby impacting gold mobilisation and secondary deposit formation in terrestrial environments.

    • Tsing Bohu
    • , Ravi Anand
    • , Ryan Noble
    • , Mel Lintern
    • , Anna H. Kaksonen
    • , Yuan Mei
    • , Ka Yu Cheng
    • , Xiao Deng
    • , Jean-Pierre Veder
    • , Michael Bunce
    • , Matthew Power
    •  & Mike Verrall
  • Article | | open

    Here, the authors determine the respiratory virome and serum cytokine profile in children diagnosed with acute respiratory tract infections (ARTI) and show that relative abundance of Propionibacterium phages as well as serum levels of TIMP-1 and PDGF-BB are increased in multiple ARTIs compared with single ARTI.

    • Yanpeng Li
    • , Xuemin Fu
    • , Jinmin Ma
    • , Jianhui Zhang
    • , Yihong Hu
    • , Wei Dong
    • , Zhenzhou Wan
    • , Qiongfang Li
    • , Yi-Qun Kuang
    • , Ke Lan
    • , Xia Jin
    • , Jian-Hua Wang
    •  & Chiyu Zhang
  • Article | | open

    Helicobacter pylori, a bacterial pathogen that infects human stomachs, has high genetic diversity across hosts. Here, Ailloud et al. reveal genetic structuring of H. pylori populations among different stomach regions of individual hosts and find signals of genetic associations with stomach region.

    • Florent Ailloud
    • , Xavier Didelot
    • , Sabrina Woltemate
    • , Gudrun Pfaffinger
    • , Jörg Overmann
    • , Ruth Christiane Bader
    • , Christian Schulz
    • , Peter Malfertheiner
    •  & Sebastian Suerbaum
  • Article | | open

    Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) depends on the envelope proteins of hepatitis B virus (HBV) for virion production. Here, Lempp et al. produce a cell line expressing HBV envelope proteins and their receptor, which allows continuous secretion of infectious progeny HDV and testing of antiviral drugs.

    • Florian A. Lempp
    • , Franziska Schlund
    • , Lisa Rieble
    • , Lea Nussbaum
    • , Corinna Link
    • , Zhenfeng Zhang
    • , Yi Ni
    •  & Stephan Urban
  • Article | | open

    Chemical imaging and spectroscopy have previously been used to identify eumelanin residue in fossils and infer dark coloration. Here, Manning and colleagues develop an approach to identify pheomelanin (red pigment) residues and ascertain their distribution in fossils.

    • Phillip L. Manning
    • , Nicholas P. Edwards
    • , Uwe Bergmann
    • , Jennifer Anné
    • , William I. Sellers
    • , Arjen van Veelen
    • , Dimosthenis Sokaras
    • , Victoria M. Egerton
    • , Roberto Alonso-Mori
    • , Konstantin Ignatyev
    • , Bart E. van Dongen
    • , Kazumasa Wakamatsu
    • , Shosuke Ito
    • , Fabien Knoll
    •  & Roy A. Wogelius
  • Article | | open

    Rotaviruses are of great medical significance because they cause gastroenteritis in children. Here the authors provide insights into the mechanism of viral mRNA transcription by determining the in situ cryo-EM structures of a working rotavirus’ RNA-dependent-RNA polymerase, which is of interest for antiviral drug design.

    • Ke Ding
    • , Cristina C. Celma
    • , Xing Zhang
    • , Thomas Chang
    • , Wesley Shen
    • , Ivo Atanasov
    • , Polly Roy
    •  & Z. Hong Zhou
  • Article | | open

    Current treatments for chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection are not curative. Here, the authors show that an antifungal drug, ciclopirox, inhibits HBV capsid assembly and synergizes with nucleoside/nucleotide analogs to prevent HBV replication in cells and in a humanized liver mouse model.

    • Jung-Ah Kang
    • , Songwon Kim
    • , Minji Park
    • , Hyun-Jin Park
    • , Jeong-Hyun Kim
    • , Sanghyeok Park
    • , Jeong-Ryul Hwang
    • , Yong-Chul Kim
    • , Yoon Jun Kim
    • , Yuri Cho
    • , Mi Sun Jin
    •  & Sung-Gyoo Park