Metabolism

Definition

Metabolism refers to the chemical reactions that occur within an organism to sustain life. The reactions are divided into two categories: catabolism (the breakdown of organic matter to produce energy); and anabolism (the construction of molecules from smaller units).

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Latest Research and Reviews

News and Comment

  • Comments and Opinion |

    A key component in the development from fatty liver to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the appearance of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The precise cellular processes that trigger the advancement of NASH towards HCC are not well understood. In 2018, three key papers were published that help us better understand these processes.

    • Saskia Reibe
    •  & Mark A. Febbraio
  • Research Highlights |

    Probiotic microorganisms such as Lactobacillus rhamnosus can protect from bone loss by enhancing levels of butyrate, which leads to the expansion of regulatory T cells. These stimulate CD8+ T cells to secrete WNT10b, a bone anabolic factor.

    • Alexandra Flemming
  • Comments and Opinion |

    With many failures, a sense of helplessness has overshadowed the field of acute kidney injury (AKI). Publications in 2018 offer new hope: better drug targets, better end points and improved understanding of conditions that cause AKI and its complications bring promise that a drug will soon be available.

    • John A. Kellum
    •  & Dana Y. Fuhrman
  • Comments and Opinion |

    In 2018, key studies shaped the way we think about environmental factors and their influence on the gut microbiota. These data highlight a new-found appreciation for the role of diet in modifying the gut microbiome and fortifying the intestinal barrier, which ultimately might lead to better treatments for chronic metabolic diseases.

    • Raylene A. Reimer
  • News and Views |

    Coating continuous glucose-monitoring sensors with zwitterionic polymer reduces early inflammatory responses and signal noise after sensor implantation in live animals, and improves the performance of the sensors without the need for additional recalibration.

    • Ershuai Zhang
    •  & Zhiqiang Cao