Metabolic bone disease

  • Article
    | Open Access

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and the Fracture Risk Assessment Tool are recommended tools for osteoporotic fracture risk evaluation, but are underutilized. Here, the authors present an opportunistic tool to identify fractures, predict bone mineral density and evaluate fracture risk using plain pelvis and lumbar spine radiographs.

    • Chen-I Hsieh
    • , Kang Zheng
    •  & Chang-Fu Kuo
  • Article
    | Open Access

    LncRNAs are implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of diseases. Here, the authors show that the lncRNA Nron suppresses bone resorption, and show that delivery of a functional motif of Nron increases bone mass in mouse models of osteoporosis.

    • Fujun Jin
    • , Junhui Li
    •  & Xiaogang Wang
  • Article
    | Open Access

    There are few treatments for male infertility. Here, the authors show that the receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) signalling pathway has important functions in sperm production and maturation, improves fertility in male mice and shows potential as a male infertility target.

    • Martin Blomberg Jensen
    • , Christine Hjorth Andreassen
    •  & Anders Juul
  • Article
    | Open Access

    T cells are involved in the bone loss induced by parathyroid hormone (PTH), but their origin is unknown. Here, the authors show that the intestinal microbiota is required for PTH to induce bone loss and describes mechanisms for microbiota-mediated gut–bone crosstalk in mouse models of hyperparathyroidism.

    • Mingcan Yu
    • , Abdul Malik Tyagi
    •  & Roberto Pacifici
  • Article
    | Open Access

    An endothelial cell subtype, expressing endomucin and CD31, has been reported to couple angiogenesis with osteogenesis. Here, the authors show that loss of ZEB1 in these cells epigenetically suppresses Notch signaling, leading to impaired angiogenesis and osteogenesis, and that Zeb1 delivery via liposomes ameliorates bone loss in osteoporotic mice

    • Rong Fu
    • , Wen-Cong Lv
    •  & Zhao-Qiu Wu
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Anti-resorptive bone therapies also inhibit bone formation, as osteoclasts secrete factors that stimulate bone formation by osteoblasts. Here, the authors identify osteoclast-secreted factors that couple bone resorption to bone formation in healthy subjects, and show that osteoclast-derived DPP4 may be a factor coupling bone resorption to energy metabolism.

    • Megan M. Weivoda
    • , Chee Kian Chew
    •  & Sundeep Khosla
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The adaptor protein SHN3 suppresses new bone formation by controlling osteoblast activity. Here, the authors show that ablation of SHN3 function, either genetically or by delivering an artificial miRNA via AAV9, rescues bone loss in osteoporotic mice, and show that engineering of the AAV9 capsid improves targeting to bone

    • Yeon-Suk Yang
    • , Jun Xie
    •  & Jae-Hyuck Shim
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Increased inflammation during ageing promotes osteoporosis by activating osteoclast function and inhibiting osteoblasts. Here, the authors show that TGFβ1 release from bone matrix during ageing induces degradation of TRAF3 in mesenchymal progenitor cells, leading to reduced osteoblast differentiation and increased osteoclast formation, and suggesting that pharmacological stabilization of TRAF3 could ameliorate age-related osteoporosis.

    • Jinbo Li
    • , Akram Ayoub
    •  & Brendan F. Boyce
  • Article
    | Open Access

    TMCO1 is a recently described endoplasmic reticular Ca2+ channel. Here, the authors show it is important for osteoblast function and bone formation in mice, and identify a novel pathway linking local increases in Ca2+ at the ER surface with the posttranslational modification of RUNX2.

    • Jianwei Li
    • , Caizhi Liu
    •  & Yingxian Li
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Estrogen promotes negative energy balance and preserves skeletal physiology. Here the authors show that loss of estrogen signalling after ablating estrogen receptor alpha (ERa) in specific hypothalamic neuronal populations leads to a marked sex-dependent increase in bone mass in female mice.

    • Candice B. Herber
    • , William C. Krause
    •  & Holly A. Ingraham
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Osteoclasts mediate bone disruption in a number of degenerative bone diseases. Here, the authors show that miR-182 regulates osteoclastogenesis via PKR and IFN-beta signaling, is correlated with rheumatoid arthritis, and that its ablation or inhibition is protective against bone erosion in mouse models of osteoporosis or inflammatory arthritis.

    • Kazuki Inoue
    • , Zhonghao Deng
    •  & Baohong Zhao
  • Article
    | Open Access

    BMP promotes bone formation but its efficacy is limited in some patients. Here, the authors show that osteoporosis patients with a poor response to BMP have increased expression of Smurf1, which targets BMP effectors for degradation, and demonstrate that its chemical inhibition enhances BMP-mediated bone formation in mice.

    • Chao Liang
    • , Songlin Peng
    •  & Ge Zhang
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Osteocytes reside in a low oxygen environment, but it is not clear if oxygen sensing regulates their function. Here, the authors show that deletion of the oxygen sensor prolyl hydroxylase 2 in osteocytes leads to increased bone mass via regulation of sclerostin, and reduces bone loss in mouse models of osteoporosis.

    • Steve Stegen
    • , Ingrid Stockmans
    •  & Geert Carmeliet
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Atherosclerosis and osteoporosis are epidemiologically associated, and oxidation specific epitopes (OSEs), which can be neutralized by innate antibodies, are pathogenic for both. Here, the authors show that mice expressing antibody fragments targeted to OSEs are protected from the bone loss induced by high-fat diet and have increased bone mass when fed a normal diet, and that levels of innate antibodies to OSEs decrease with ageing.

    • Elena Ambrogini
    • , Xuchu Que
    •  & Robert L. Jilka
  • Article
    | Open Access

    CCR5 is a co-receptor for HIV, and loss of function is associated with lower incidence of HIV but also with bone-destructive diseases. Here the authors show that ablation of CCR5 impairs osteoclast function and improves resistance to osteoporosis in mouse models.

    • Ji-Won Lee
    • , Akiyoshi Hoshino
    •  & Tadahiro Iimura
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Mesenchymal stem cells are essential for bone development, but it is unclear if their activity is maintained after late puberty, when bone growth decelerates. The authors show that during late puberty in mice, these cells undergo senescence under the epigenetic control of Ezh2.

    • Changjun Li
    • , Yu Chai
    •  & Mei Wan
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Osteoclasts are bone resorptive cells and an attractive target to treat diseases characterized by excessive bone loss, but little is known about osteoclast inhibition. Here the authors identify Gα13 as an intracellular inhibitor of osteoclastogenesis that can prevent bone loss in mice via Akt activation and inhibition of RhoA signalling.

    • Mengrui Wu
    • , Wei Chen
    •  & Yi-Ping Li
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is an endogenous hormone and osteoporosis therapeutic that suppresses sclerostin activity. Here the authors develop SIK inhibitors as potential therapeutic tools and use them to show that PTH-cAMP signalling in osteocytes inhibits SIK2 from driving Hdac4/5 nuclear shuttling to suppress sclerostin.

    • Marc N. Wein
    • , Yanke Liang
    •  & Henry M. Kronenberg
  • Article
    | Open Access

    GDF11 is related to myostatin yet has no known role in postnatal bone turnover. Here the authors show that recombinant GDF11 injection causes bone loss and impairs healing by driving osteoclastogenesis while inhibiting osteoblast differentiation, plus they show that anti-GDF11 Ab can inhibit bone loss in ovariectomy and ageing mouse models.

    • Weiqing Liu
    • , Liyan Zhou
    •  & Quan Yuan
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The growth factor NELL-1 induces bone formation during development, but its role in osteoporosis is unknown. This study shows that NELL-1 binding to integrin ß1 induces Wnt/ß-catenin signalling in the bone and restores bone mineral density in osteoporotic mice and sheep, suggesting the therapeutic potential of NELL-1 for the treatment of bone loss.

    • Aaron W. James
    • , Jia Shen
    •  & Chia Soo
  • Article |

    Small-molecule C21 inhibits Rac GTPase activation by Dock5, which decreases osteoclast activity in vitro. Using three mouse models where bone loss is caused by hyperactive osteoclasts, Vives et al. show that C21 treatment safely and efficiently prevents osteoporosis while preserving bone formation.

    • Virginie Vives
    • , Gaëlle Cres
    •  & Anne Blangy