Mathematics and computing

  • Article | | open

    The resolution limitations when using the ubiquitous algorithms that process images obtained using modern techniques are not straightforward to define. Here, the authors examine the performance of localization algorithms and use spatial statistics to provide a metric for assessing the resolution limit of such algorithms.

    • Edward A. K. Cohen
    • , Anish V. Abraham
    • , Sreevidhya Ramakrishnan
    •  & Raimund J. Ober
  • Article | | open

    Information of genetic architectures of complex traits can be leveraged for predicting phenotypes. Here, the authors develop CTPR (Cross-Trait Penalized Regression), a method for multi-trait polygenic risk prediction using individual-level genotypes and/or summary statistics from large cohorts.

    • Wonil Chung
    • , Jun Chen
    • , Constance Turman
    • , Sara Lindstrom
    • , Zhaozhong Zhu
    • , Po-Ru Loh
    • , Peter Kraft
    •  & Liming Liang
  • Article | | open

    The incomplete nature and undefined structure of the existing catalysis research data has prevented comprehensive knowledge extraction. Here, the authors report a novel meta-analysis method that identifies correlations between a catalyst’s physico-chemical properties and its performance in a particular reaction.

    • Roman Schmack
    • , Alexandra Friedrich
    • , Evgenii V. Kondratenko
    • , Jörg Polte
    • , Axel Werwatz
    •  & Ralph Kraehnert
  • Article | | open

    Percolation is a tool used to investigate a network’s response as random links are removed. Here the author presents a generic analytic theory to describe how percolation properties are affected in coloured networks, where the colour can represent a network feature such as multiplexity or the belonging to a community.

    • Ivan Kryven
  • Article | | open

    Focal amplifications are prevalent in many cancer genomes. Here, the authors present AmpliconArchitect (AA), a computational tool for reconstructing their architecture, and reveal an extrachromosomal origin for focal amplifications, including hybrid human-virus elements in HPV-mediated cancers.

    • Viraj Deshpande
    • , Jens Luebeck
    • , Nam-Phuong D. Nguyen
    • , Mehrdad Bakhtiari
    • , Kristen M. Turner
    • , Richard Schwab
    • , Hannah Carter
    • , Paul S. Mischel
    •  & Vineet Bafna
  • Article | | open

    Designing mechanical metamaterials is challenging because of the large number of non-periodic constituent elements. Here, the authors develop an approach to design arbitrarily shaped metamaterials that is more computationally efficient by six orders of magnitude compared to other approaches.

    • Lucas A. Shaw
    • , Frederick Sun
    • , Carlos M. Portela
    • , Rodolfo I. Barranco
    • , Julia R. Greer
    •  & Jonathan B. Hopkins
  • Article | | open

    Similarly to entropy, majorization allows to quantify deviation from uniformity in a wide range of fields. In this paper, the authors use its generalization to the quantum realm to derive a complete set of necessary and sufficient conditions for thermal transformations of quantum states.

    • Gilad Gour
    • , David Jennings
    • , Francesco Buscemi
    • , Runyao Duan
    •  & Iman Marvian
  • Article | | open

    Predicting plastic deformation in crystals remains challenging owing to the nonlinear nature of stochastic avalanches involved, which resemble the critical phenomena. Salmenjoki et al. use machine learning to predict plastic deformation and show that it works better for those under large strains.

    • Henri Salmenjoki
    • , Mikko J. Alava
    •  & Lasse Laurson
  • Article | | open

    Increasing insecticide resistance of mosquitoes represents a public health threat, and underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, Ingham et al. identify putative insecticide resistance genes in Anopheles gambiae populations across Africa and develop a web-based application that maps their expression.

    • V. A. Ingham
    • , S. Wagstaff
    •  & H. Ranson
  • Article | | open

    The software Optimer has aided the programmable one-pot oligosaccharide synthesis with a library of 50 Building BLocks (BBLs). Here, the authors expanded Optimer's validated and virtual libraries of BBLs and developed Auto-CHO, a software which allows the one-pot programmable synthesis of more complex glycans.

    • Cheng-Wei Cheng
    • , Yixuan Zhou
    • , Wen-Harn Pan
    • , Supriya Dey
    • , Chung-Yi Wu
    • , Wen-Lian Hsu
    •  & Chi-Huey Wong
  • Article | | open

    Diversity is believed to raise effectiveness and performance but it contains many aspects. Here the authors studied the relationship between research impact and five classes of diversity and found that ethnic diversity had the strongest correlation with scientific impact.

    • Bedoor K. AlShebli
    • , Talal Rahwan
    •  & Wei Lee Woon
  • Article | | open

    Modern microscopes can generate high volumes of 3D images, driving difficulties in data handling and processing. Here, the authors present a content-adaptive image representation as an alternative to standard pixels that goes beyond data compression to overcome storage, memory, and processing bottlenecks.

    • Bevan L. Cheeseman
    • , Ulrik Günther
    • , Krzysztof Gonciarz
    • , Mateusz Susik
    •  & Ivo F. Sbalzarini
  • Article | | open

    It is now possible to predict what a chemical smells like based on its chemical structure, however to date, this has only been done for a small number of odor descriptors. Here, using natural-language semantic representations, the authors demonstrate prediction of a much wider range of descriptors.

    • E. Darío Gutiérrez
    • , Amit Dhurandhar
    • , Andreas Keller
    • , Pablo Meyer
    •  & Guillermo A. Cecchi
  • Article | | open

    It is often advantageous to transform a strongly nonlinear system into a linear one in order to simplify its analysis for prediction and control. Here the authors combine dynamical systems with deep learning to identify these hard-to-find transformations.

    • Bethany Lusch
    • , J. Nathan Kutz
    •  & Steven L. Brunton
  • Article | | open

    Continuous-time computation paradigm could represent a viable alternative to the standard digital one when dealing with certain classes of problems. Here, the authors propose a generalised version of a continuous-time solver and simulate its performances in solving MaxSAT and two-colour Ramsey problems.

    • Botond Molnár
    • , Ferenc Molnár
    • , Melinda Varga
    • , Zoltán Toroczkai
    •  & Mária Ercsey-Ravasz
  • Article | | open

    HIV infected cells persist for decades in patients under ART, but the mechanisms responsible remain unclear. Here, Reeves et al. use modeling approaches adapted from ecology to show that cellular proliferation, rather than viral replication, generates a majority of infected cells during ART.

    • Daniel B. Reeves
    • , Elizabeth R. Duke
    • , Thor A. Wagner
    • , Sarah E. Palmer
    • , Adam M. Spivak
    •  & Joshua T. Schiffer
  • Article | | open

    Publicly available single cell RNA-seq datasets represent valuable resources for comparative and meta-analysis. Here, the authors develop scQuery, a web server integrating over 500 different studies with over 300 unique cell types for comparative analysis of existing and new scRNA-seq data.

    • Amir Alavi
    • , Matthew Ruffalo
    • , Aiyappa Parvangada
    • , Zhilin Huang
    •  & Ziv Bar-Joseph
  • Article | | open

    Accurate and actionable biomarkers that integrate diverse molecular, functional and clinical information hold great promise in precision medicine. Here, the authors develop SIMMS, a method for pathway-based cross-disease biomarker discovery.

    • Syed Haider
    • , Cindy Q. Yao
    • , Vicky S. Sabine
    • , Michal Grzadkowski
    • , Vincent Stimper
    • , Maud H. W. Starmans
    • , Jianxin Wang
    • , Francis Nguyen
    • , Nathalie C. Moon
    • , Xihui Lin
    • , Camilla Drake
    • , Cheryl A. Crozier
    • , Cassandra L. Brookes
    • , Cornelis J. H. van de Velde
    • , Annette Hasenburg
    • , Dirk G. Kieback
    • , Christos J. Markopoulos
    • , Luc Y. Dirix
    • , Caroline Seynaeve
    • , Daniel W. Rea
    • , Arek Kasprzyk
    • , Philippe Lambin
    • , Pietro Lio’
    • , John M. S. Bartlett
    •  & Paul C. Boutros
  • Article | | open

    Algorithms designed to find rare cells in single cell RNA-seq data sets cannot cope with data sets containing tens of thousands of cells. Here the authors present Finder of Rare Entities (FiRE), an algorithm that uses the Sketching technique to assign a rareness score to every expression profile in large RNA-seq data sets.

    • Aashi Jindal
    • , Prashant Gupta
    • , Jayadeva
    •  & Debarka Sengupta
  • Article | | open

    Complex networks can be a useful tool to investigate problems in social science. Here the authors use game theory to establish a network model and then use a machine learning approach to characterize the role of nodes within a social network.

    • Yuan Yuan
    • , Ahmad Alabdulkareem
    •  & Alex ‘Sandy’ Pentland
  • Article | | open

    Automated analysis of RNA localisation in smFISH data has been elusive. Here, the authors simulate and use a large dataset of images to design and validate a framework for highly accurate classification of sub-cellular RNA localisation patterns from smFISH experiments.

    • Aubin Samacoits
    • , Racha Chouaib
    • , Adham Safieddine
    • , Abdel-Meneem Traboulsi
    • , Wei Ouyang
    • , Christophe Zimmer
    • , Marion Peter
    • , Edouard Bertrand
    • , Thomas Walter
    •  & Florian Mueller
  • Article | | open

    Nanoparticle applications are limited by insufficient understanding of physiochemical properties on in vivo disposition. Here, the authors explore the influence of size, surface chemistry and administration on the biodisposition of mesoporous silica nanoparticles using image-based pharmacokinetics.

    • Prashant Dogra
    • , Natalie L. Adolphi
    • , Zhihui Wang
    • , Yu-Shen Lin
    • , Kimberly S. Butler
    • , Paul N. Durfee
    • , Jonas G. Croissant
    • , Achraf Noureddine
    • , Eric N. Coker
    • , Elaine L. Bearer
    • , Vittorio Cristini
    •  & C. Jeffrey Brinker
  • Article | | open

    Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance combined with quantum chemical shift predictions is limited by high computational cost. Here, the authors use machine learning based on local atomic environments to predict experimental chemical shifts in molecular solids with accuracy similar to density functional theory.

    • Federico M. Paruzzo
    • , Albert Hofstetter
    • , Félix Musil
    • , Sandip De
    • , Michele Ceriotti
    •  & Lyndon Emsley
  • Article | | open

    Dynamics in cold atomic ensembles involve complex many-body interactions that are hard to treat analytically. Here, the authors use machine learning to optimise the cooling and trapping of neutral atoms, showing an improvement in the resulting resonant optical depth compared to more traditional solutions.

    • A. D. Tranter
    • , H. J. Slatyer
    • , M. R. Hush
    • , A. C. Leung
    • , J. L. Everett
    • , K. V. Paul
    • , P. Vernaz-Gris
    • , P. K. Lam
    • , B. C. Buchler
    •  & G. T. Campbell
  • Article | | open

    AI is used increasingly in medical diagnostics. Here, the authors present a deep learning model that masters medical knowledge, demonstrated by it having passed the written test of the 2017 National Medical Licensing Examination in China, and can provide help with clinical diagnosis based on electronic health care records.

    • Ji Wu
    • , Xien Liu
    • , Xiao Zhang
    • , Zhiyang He
    •  & Ping Lv
  • Article | | open

    Self-folding origami have applications for mechanical metamaterials but one of their pitfalls is that many undesirable folding modes exist. Here the authors propose an algorithm to determine which folding joints to make stiffer in order to ensure that the sheet is folded into the chosen state.

    • Menachem Stern
    • , Viraaj Jayaram
    •  & Arvind Murugan
  • Article | | open

    Progressive diseases tend to be heterogeneous in their underlying aetiology mechanism, disease manifestation, and disease time course. Here, Young and colleagues devise a computational method to account for both phenotypic heterogeneity and temporal heterogeneity, and demonstrate it using two neurodegenerative disease cohorts.

    • Alexandra L Young
    • , Razvan V Marinescu
    • , Neil P Oxtoby
    • , Martina Bocchetta
    • , Keir Yong
    • , Nicholas C Firth
    • , David M Cash
    • , David L Thomas
    • , Katrina M Dick
    • , Jorge Cardoso
    • , John van Swieten
    • , Barbara Borroni
    • , Daniela Galimberti
    • , Mario Masellis
    • , Maria Carmela Tartaglia
    • , James B Rowe
    • , Caroline Graff
    • , Fabrizio Tagliavini
    • , Giovanni B Frisoni
    • , Robert Laforce Jr
    • , Elizabeth Finger
    • , Alexandre de Mendonça
    • , Sandro Sorbi
    • , Jason D Warren
    • , Sebastian Crutch
    • , Nick C Fox
    • , Sebastien Ourselin
    • , Jonathan M Schott
    • , Jonathan D Rohrer
    • , Daniel C Alexander
    • , Christin Andersson
    • , Silvana Archetti
    • , Andrea Arighi
    • , Luisa Benussi
    • , Giuliano Binetti
    • , Sandra Black
    • , Maura Cosseddu
    • , Marie Fallström
    • , Carlos Ferreira
    • , Chiara Fenoglio
    • , Morris Freedman
    • , Giorgio G Fumagalli
    • , Stefano Gazzina
    • , Roberta Ghidoni
    • , Marina Grisoli
    • , Vesna Jelic
    • , Lize Jiskoot
    • , Ron Keren
    • , Gemma Lombardi
    • , Carolina Maruta
    • , Lieke Meeter
    • , Simon Mead
    • , Rick van Minkelen
    • , Benedetta Nacmias
    • , Linn Öijerstedt
    • , Alessandro Padovani
    • , Jessica Panman
    • , Michela Pievani
    • , Cristina Polito
    • , Enrico Premi
    • , Sara Prioni
    • , Rosa Rademakers
    • , Veronica Redaelli
    • , Ekaterina Rogaeva
    • , Giacomina Rossi
    • , Martin Rossor
    • , Elio Scarpini
    • , David Tang-Wai
    • , Hakan Thonberg
    • , Pietro Tiraboschi
    • , Ana Verdelho
    • , Michael W Weiner
    • , Paul Aisen
    • , Ronald Petersen
    • , Clifford R Jack
    • , William Jagust
    • , John Q Trojanowki
    • , Arthur W Toga
    • , Laurel Beckett
    • , Robert C Green
    • , Andrew J Saykin
    • , John Morris
    • , Leslie M Shaw
    • , Zaven Khachaturian
    • , Greg Sorensen
    • , Lew Kuller
    • , Marc Raichle
    • , Steven Paul
    • , Peter Davies
    • , Howard Fillit
    • , Franz Hefti
    • , Davie Holtzman
    • , M Marcel Mesulam
    • , William Potter
    • , Peter Snyder
    • , Adam Schwartz
    • , Tom Montine
    • , Ronald G Thomas
    • , Michael Donohue
    • , Sarah Walter
    • , Devon Gessert
    • , Tamie Sather
    • , Gus Jiminez
    • , Danielle Harvey
    • , Matthew Bernstein
    • , Paul Thompson
    • , Norbert Schuff
    • , Bret Borowski
    • , Jeff Gunter
    • , Matt Senjem
    • , Prashanthi Vemuri
    • , David Jones
    • , Kejal Kantarci
    • , Chad Ward
    • , Robert A Koeppe
    • , Norm Foster
    • , Eric M Reiman
    • , Kewei Chen
    • , Chet Mathis
    • , Susan Landau
    • , Nigel J Cairns
    • , Erin Householder
    • , Lisa Taylor-Reinwald
    • , Virginia Lee
    • , Magdalena Korecka
    • , Michal Figurski
    • , Karen Crawford
    • , Scott Neu
    • , Tatiana M Foroud
    • , Steven Potkin
    • , Li Shen
    • , Kelley Faber
    • , Sungeun Kim
    • , Kwangsik Nho
    • , Leon Thal
    • , Neil Buckholtz
    • , Marylyn Albert
    • , Richard Frank
    • , John Hsiao
    • , Jeffrey Kaye
    • , Joseph Quinn
    • , Betty Lind
    • , Raina Carter
    • , Sara Dolen
    • , Lon S Schneider
    • , Sonia Pawluczyk
    • , Mauricio Beccera
    • , Liberty Teodoro
    • , Bryan M Spann
    • , James Brewer
    • , Helen Vanderswag
    • , Adam Fleisher
    • , Judith L Heidebrink
    • , Joanne L Lord
    • , Sara S Mason
    • , Colleen S Albers
    • , David Knopman
    • , Kris Johnson
    • , Rachelle S Doody
    • , Javier Villanueva-Meyer
    • , Munir Chowdhury
    • , Susan Rountree
    • , Mimi Dang
    • , Yaakov Stern
    • , Lawrence S Honig
    • , Karen L Bell
    • , Beau Ances
    • , Maria Carroll
    • , Sue Leon
    • , Mark A Mintun
    • , Stacy Schneider
    • , Angela Oliver
    • , Daniel Marson
    • , Randall Griffith
    • , David Clark
    • , David Geldmacher
    • , John Brockington
    • , Erik Roberson
    • , Hillel Grossman
    • , Effie Mitsis
    • , Leyla de Toledo-Morrell
    • , Raj C Shah
    • , Ranjan Duara
    • , Daniel Varon
    • , Maria T Greig
    • , Peggy Roberts
    • , Marilyn Albert
    • , Chiadi Onyike
    • , Daniel D’Agostino
    • , Stephanie Kielb
    • , James E Galvin
    • , Brittany Cerbone
    • , Christina A Michel
    • , Henry Rusinek
    • , Mony J de Leon
    • , Lidia Glodzik
    • , Susan De Santi
    • , P Murali Doraiswamy
    • , Jeffrey R Petrella
    • , Terence Z Wong
    • , Steven E Arnold
    • , Jason H Karlawish
    • , David Wolk
    • , Charles D Smith
    • , Greg Jicha
    • , Peter Hardy
    • , Partha Sinha
    • , Elizabeth Oates
    • , Gary Conrad
    • , Oscar L Lopez
    • , MaryAnn Oakley
    • , Donna M Simpson
    • , Anton P Porsteinsson
    • , Bonnie S Goldstein
    • , Kim Martin
    • , Kelly M Makino
    • , M Saleem Ismail
    • , Connie Brand
    • , Ruth A Mulnard
    • , Gaby Thai
    • , Catherine Mc-Adams-Ortiz
    • , Kyle Womack
    • , Dana Mathews
    • , Mary Quiceno
    • , Ramon Diaz-Arrastia
    • , Richard King
    • , Myron Weiner
    • , Kristen Martin-Cook
    • , Michael DeVous
    • , Allan I Levey
    • , James J Lah
    • , Janet S Cellar
    • , Jeffrey M Burns
    • , Heather S Anderson
    • , Russell H Swerdlow
    • , Liana Apostolova
    • , Kathleen Tingus
    • , Ellen Woo
    • , Daniel Hs Silverman
    • , Po H Lu
    • , George Bartzokis
    • , Neill R Graff-Radford
    • , Francine Parfitt
    • , Tracy Kendall
    • , Heather Johnson
    • , Martin R Farlow
    • , Ann Marie Hake
    • , Brandy R Matthews
    • , Scott Herring
    • , Cynthia Hunt
    • , Christopher H van Dyck
    • , Richard E Carson
    • , Martha G MacAvoy
    • , Howard Chertkow
    • , Howard Bergman
    • , Chris Hosein
    • , Bojana Stefanovic
    • , Curtis Caldwell
    • , Ging-Yuek Robin Hsiung
    • , Howard Feldman
    • , Benita Mudge
    • , Michele Assaly
    • , Andrew Kertesz
    • , John Rogers
    • , Charles Bernick
    • , Donna Munic
    • , Diana Kerwin
    • , Marek-Marsel Mesulam
    • , Kristine Lipowski
    • , Chuang-Kuo Wu
    • , Nancy Johnson
    • , Carl Sadowsky
    • , Walter Martinez
    • , Teresa Villena
    • , Raymond Scott Turner
    • , Kathleen Johnson
    • , Brigid Reynolds
    • , Reisa A Sperling
    • , Keith A Johnson
    • , Gad Marshall
    • , Meghan Frey
    • , Barton Lane
    • , Allyson Rosen
    • , Jared Tinklenberg
    • , Marwan N Sabbagh
    • , Christine M Belden
    • , Sandra A Jacobson
    • , Sherye A Sirrel
    • , Neil Kowall
    • , Ronald Killiany
    • , Andrew E Budson
    • , Alexander Norbash
    • , Patricia Lynn Johnson
    • , Joanne Allard
    • , Alan Lerner
    • , Paula Ogrocki
    • , Leon Hudson
    • , Evan Fletcher
    • , Owen Carmichael
    • , John Olichney
    • , Charles DeCarli
    • , Smita Kittur
    • , Michael Borrie
    • , T-Y Lee
    • , Rob Bartha
    • , Sterling Johnson
    • , Sanjay Asthana
    • , Cynthia M Carlsson
    • , Steven G Potkin
    • , Adrian Preda
    • , Dana Nguyen
    • , Pierre Tariot
    • , Stephanie Reeder
    • , Vernice Bates
    • , Horacio Capote
    • , Michelle Rainka
    • , Douglas W Scharre
    • , Maria Kataki
    • , Anahita Adeli
    • , Earl A Zimmerman
    • , Dzintra Celmins
    • , Alice D Brown
    • , Godfrey D Pearlson
    • , Karen Blank
    • , Karen Anderson
    • , Robert B Santulli
    • , Tamar J Kitzmiller
    • , Eben S Schwartz
    • , Kaycee M Sink
    • , Jeff D Williamson
    • , Pradeep Garg
    • , Franklin Watkins
    • , Brian R Ott
    • , Henry Querfurth
    • , Geoffrey Tremont
    • , Stephen Salloway
    • , Paul Malloy
    • , Stephen Correia
    • , Howard J Rosen
    • , Bruce L Miller
    • , Jacobo Mintzer
    • , Kenneth Spicer
    • , David Bachman
    • , Stephen Pasternak
    • , Irina Rachinsky
    • , Dick Drost
    • , Nunzio Pomara
    • , Raymundo Hernando
    • , Antero Sarrael
    • , Susan K Schultz
    • , Laura L Boles Ponto
    • , Hyungsub Shim
    • , Karen Elizabeth Smith
    • , Norman Relkin
    • , Gloria Chaing
    • , Lisa Raudin
    • , Amanda Smith
    • , Kristin Fargher
    • , Balebail Ashok Raj
    • , Thomas Neylan
    • , Jordan Grafman
    • , Melissa Davis
    • , Rosemary Morrison
    • , Jacqueline Hayes
    • , Shannon Finley
    • , Karl Friedl
    • , Debra Fleischman
    • , Konstantinos Arfanakis
    • , Olga James
    • , Dino Massoglia
    • , J Jay Fruehling
    • , Sandra Harding
    • , Elaine R Peskind
    • , Eric C Petrie
    • , Gail Li
    • , Jerome A Yesavage
    • , Joy L Taylor
    •  & Ansgar J Furst
  • Article | | open

    With the rapid development of quantum computers, quantum machine learning approaches are emerging as powerful tools to perform electronic structure calculations. Here, the authors develop a quantum machine learning algorithm, which demonstrates significant improvements in solving quantum many-body problems.

    • Rongxin Xia
    •  & Sabre Kais
  • Article | | open

    Materials databases currently neglect the temperature effect on compound thermodynamics. Here the authors introduce a Gibbs energy descriptor enabling the high-throughput prediction of temperature-dependent thermodynamics across a wide range of compositions and temperatures for inorganic solids.

    • Christopher J. Bartel
    • , Samantha L. Millican
    • , Ann M. Deml
    • , John R. Rumptz
    • , William Tumas
    • , Alan W. Weimer
    • , Stephan Lany
    • , Vladan Stevanović
    • , Charles B. Musgrave
    •  & Aaron M. Holder
  • Article | | open

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a powerful technique for measuring human brain activity, but the statistical analysis of fMRI data can be difficult. Here, the authors introduce a new fMRI analysis tool, LISA, which provides increased statistical power compared to existing techniques.

    • Gabriele Lohmann
    • , Johannes Stelzer
    • , Eric Lacosse
    • , Vinod J. Kumar
    • , Karsten Mueller
    • , Esther Kuehn
    • , Wolfgang Grodd
    •  & Klaus Scheffler
  • Article | | open

    Visual search requires recognizing an object “invariantly”, despite changes in its appearance. Here, the authors show that humans can efficiently and invariantly search for objects in complex scenes and introduce a biologically-inspired zero-shot model that captures human eye movements during search.

    • Mengmi Zhang
    • , Jiashi Feng
    • , Keng Teck Ma
    • , Joo Hwee Lim
    • , Qi Zhao
    •  & Gabriel Kreiman
  • Article | | open

    Atomic force microscopy is an indispensable method in characterizing soft materials but the complexity of biological samples makes reproducible measurements difficult. Here the authors use a 3-step method to investigate biological specimens in which vertical and lateral heterogeneity hinders a precise quantitative characterization.

    • Massimiliano Galluzzi
    • , Guanlin Tang
    • , Chandra S. Biswas
    • , Jinlai Zhao
    • , Shiguo Chen
    •  & Florian J. Stadler
  • Article | | open

    Gas breakdown mechanism in plasma under the influence of complex electromagnetic field topology is still debatable. Here the authors present the evidence of the E×B mixing avalanche for gas breakdown in magnetized plasmas in fusion devices as tokamak.

    • Min-Gu Yoo
    • , Jeongwon Lee
    • , Young-Gi Kim
    • , Jayhyun Kim
    • , Francesco Maviglia
    • , Adrianus C. C. Sips
    • , Hyun-Tae Kim
    • , Taik Soo Hahm
    • , Yong-Seok Hwang
    • , Hae June Lee
    •  & Yong-Su Na
  • Article | | open

    Causality inference in time series analysis based on temporal precedence principle between cause and effect fails to detect mutual causal interactions. Here, Yang et al. introduce a causal decomposition approach based on the covariation principle of cause and effect that overcomes this limitation.

    • Albert C. Yang
    • , Chung-Kang Peng
    •  & Norden E. Huang
  • Article | | open

    Understanding the occurrence of sudden changes in plasma parameters is important for the operation of magnetically confined fusion devices. Here the authors use simulation to shed light on the formation of abrupt large-amplitude events and the associated redistribution of energetic ions in a tokamak.

    • Andreas Bierwage
    • , Kouji Shinohara
    • , Yasushi Todo
    • , Nobuyuki Aiba
    • , Masao Ishikawa
    • , Go Matsunaga
    • , Manabu Takechi
    •  & Masatoshi Yagi
  • Article | | open

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of neuroimaging data pose a significant computational burden because of the need to correct for multiple testing in both the genetic and the imaging data. Here, Ganjgahi et al. develop WLS-REML which significantly reduces computation running times in brain imaging GWAS.

    • Habib Ganjgahi
    • , Anderson M. Winkler
    • , David C. Glahn
    • , John Blangero
    • , Brian Donohue
    • , Peter Kochunov
    •  & Thomas E. Nichols
  • Article | | open

    Though memristors can potentially emulate neuron and synapse functionality, useful signal energy is lost to Joule heating. Here, the authors demonstrate neuro-transistors with a pseudo-memcapacitive gate that actively process signals via energy-efficient capacitively-coupled neural networks.

    • Zhongrui Wang
    • , Mingyi Rao
    • , Jin-Woo Han
    • , Jiaming Zhang
    • , Peng Lin
    • , Yunning Li
    • , Can Li
    • , Wenhao Song
    • , Shiva Asapu
    • , Rivu Midya
    • , Ye Zhuo
    • , Hao Jiang
    • , Jung Ho Yoon
    • , Navnidhi Kumar Upadhyay
    • , Saumil Joshi
    • , Miao Hu
    • , John Paul Strachan
    • , Mark Barnell
    • , Qing Wu
    • , Huaqiang Wu
    • , Qinru Qiu
    • , R. Stanley Williams
    • , Qiangfei Xia
    •  & J. Joshua Yang
  • Article | | open

    Understanding mixing in yield stress materials, such as paint and sand, is complicated due to the coexistence of solid-like and fluid-like regimes. Zaman et al. examine mixing in a granular material in three dimensions and find persistent complex non-mixing structures within the chaotic flowing regime.

    • Zafir Zaman
    • , Mengqi Yu
    • , Paul P. Park
    • , Julio M. Ottino
    • , Richard M. Lueptow
    •  & Paul B. Umbanhowar
  • Article | | open

    Anticrack propagation in snow results from the mixed-mode failure and collapse of a buried weak layer and can lead to slab avalanches. Here, authors reproduce the complex dynamics of anticrack propagation observed in field experiments using a Material Point Method with large strain elastoplasticity.

    • J. Gaume
    • , T. Gast
    • , J. Teran
    • , A. van Herwijnen
    •  & C. Jiang
  • Article | | open

    Classifying crystal structures using their space group is important to understand material properties, but the process currently requires user input. Here, the authors use machine learning to automatically classify more than 100,000 simulated perfect and defective crystal structures.

    • Angelo Ziletti
    • , Devinder Kumar
    • , Matthias Scheffler
    •  & Luca M. Ghiringhelli
  • Article | | open

    Neuromorphic hardware is based on principles of neuroscience, and has the potential to provide higher-level brain functions. Here, the authors develop a neuromorphic network device, constructed from single-walled carbon nanotubes and polyoxometalate, that mimics nerve impulse generation.

    • Hirofumi Tanaka
    • , Megumi Akai-Kasaya
    • , Amin TermehYousefi
    • , Liu Hong
    • , Lingxiang Fu
    • , Hakaru Tamukoh
    • , Daisuke Tanaka
    • , Tetsuya Asai
    •  & Takuji Ogawa
  • Article | | open

    Billions of metagenomic and genomic sequences fill up public datasets, which makes similarity clustering an important and time-critical analysis step. Here, the authors develop Linclust, an algorithm with linear time complexity that can cluster over a billion sequences within hours on a single server.

    • Martin Steinegger
    •  & Johannes Söding
  • Article | | open

    Despite advances in ENSO modeling, super El Niño events remain largely unpredictable. Hameed et al. postulate that ENSO-IOD interaction is crucial for super El Niño development and identify a self-limiting factor that constrains ENSO dynamics from generating these extreme events on their own.

    • Saji N. Hameed
    • , Dachao Jin
    •  & Vishnu Thilakan
  • Article | | open

    Memristive technology is a promising avenue towards realizing efficient non-von Neumann neuromorphic hardware. Boybat et al. proposes a multi-memristive synaptic architecture with a counter-based global arbitration scheme to address challenges associated with the non-ideal memristive device behavior.

    • Irem Boybat
    • , Manuel Le Gallo
    • , S. R. Nandakumar
    • , Timoleon Moraitis
    • , Thomas Parnell
    • , Tomas Tuma
    • , Bipin Rajendran
    • , Yusuf Leblebici
    • , Abu Sebastian
    •  & Evangelos Eleftheriou
  • Article | | open

    Mitochondrial populations in cells may consist of heteroplasmic mixtures of mtDNA types, and their evolution through development, aging and generations is central to genetic diseases. Here the authors dissect these population dynamics using a large mouse-based data set to characterise the dynamics of heteroplasmy mean and variance throughout life and across generations.

    • Joerg P. Burgstaller
    • , Thomas Kolbe
    • , Vitezslav Havlicek
    • , Stephanie Hembach
    • , Joanna Poulton
    • , Jaroslav Piálek
    • , Ralf Steinborn
    • , Thomas Rülicke
    • , Gottfried Brem
    • , Nick S. Jones
    •  & Iain G. Johnston
  • Article | | open

    Bottom-up fabrication via on-surface molecular self-assembly is a useful way to make nanomaterials, but finding appropriate precursor molecules for a given structure remains a challenge. Here the authors present an informatics technique linking self-assembled structures with precursor properties, helping identify molecules for target nanomaterials.

    • Daniel M. Packwood
    •  & Taro Hitosugi